|agraharam, Konerirajapuram, near Kumbakonam, Thanjavur Dist. Tamil nadu..www.alamy.com|
|Agraharam House in Chathapuram, Kalpathy-Palakkad,Kerala state- .olx.in|
........The Lost Warship" by Robert Moore Williams
In this transient world from its early beginning till now nothing is permanent. Old is always being replaced by new ones. Our heritage structures, living space, culture, etc face frequent changes with the march of time and onslaught of modernity. Caught in the ebb and flow of time and change, the agraharams - once the serene, quiet and clean Brahmin settlements, the space where one's early childhood life was spent and enjoyed, are gradually disappearing. However, some agraharams in Melattur, Tippirajapuram, etc of Thajavur District, TN and some in Kerala still retain the past connectivity, old charm and the ambiance.
''The agraharam: the transformation of social space and Brahman status in Tamilnadu during the colonial and post colonial
C. J. Fuller
The name Agraharam or Agrahara is referred to the residential quarter of a village that may also have other communities belonging to different castes. In some places an agraharam may include an entire village. Also known as ''Chaturvedi mangalams'' in ancient times, agraharam has been in existence for centuries across south India, in particular. Several decades ago before (1950s) it was a living space exclusively for Brahmins only. Brahmins, by profession, were temple priests in the very early days.
|A front par part of house in an agraharam, Palakad dist. mathrubhumi.com|
|Agraharam, at Udayalur, Thanjavur districtn.www.thehindu.com|
The following are some of features of an Agraharam:
01. Based on the topography and the nature of river flowing near-by and its banks, the settlement is built at higher levels. This way problems related to water-logging and flooding are avoided.
02. Invariably the entire agrahara village or the places where Brahmins used to live were grants from the ruling kings. Ganapathy agraharam near Thiruvaiyaru, Thanjavur District is a good example. The entire village is referred to as ‘Agraharam'
03. During the Chola,Pallava and Pandya dynasties, the great rulers granted agricultural lands for their household needs, etc., and and lands for housing to the temple priests - Brahmins to take care of the temple rituals and six-kaala pujas regularly.
Those settlements were known as ''Chaturvedi mangalams.''
04. The later rulers of Thanjavur, belonging to Nayak and Maratha dynasties granted lands to the Brahmins. During th Maratha rule in Thanjavur, many agraharams were attached to the chatrams (travelers' inns) built by the Maratha rulers. Dabir Agraharam in Kumbakonam city (named after Dabir Pundit alias Naroo Pundit) who was a minister under Pratap Singh (1739 to 1763) and later under Tulaja II. He introduced a unique revenue generating system called Dabir Muri system. Though this system
was not implemented, it was the Collector of Thanjavur J. Cotton successfully adopted it.
05. Likewise, the agraharams and agricultural lands in Kerala were donated by the rulers of Travancore and Cochin. The rulers of Mysore, now in Karnataka State donated many villages in the district of Mandhya, etc to the Brahmins who were temple priests. Further, in the earlier days the rulers patronized mutt- heads of Saivite mutt such as Aadheenams of Tamil Nadu, Sankaracharyars and Vaishvaite mutt heads - Jeers and others.
06.In a typical agraharam there used to be two or three potable common water wells in the same street for all the residents there.
07.In any house the common feature is the presence of a raised platform called Thinnai (pial) all along the front portion either side of the main entrance to the house with typical slanting country tiled roof, teakwood rafters and solid teak wood pillars. The overhang provides shelter from rain and reduces the glare in the building. It is a casual lounging place/ seating area by day, where visitors are received. Sometimes, it may used to discuss latest politics, agricultural matter or simply local gossip. In my early days the elders used to play cards to spend their leisure hours!!
08. A typical Brahmin house consists of three parts - the mudhal kattu (receiving quarters), irandaam kattu (living quarters) and moondram kattu (kitchen, etc.,).
09. Almost all homes will have sky space or open court yard with gently sunken floor above which there will be high tiled roofing called mithaam ( a tamil word). In some houses with out sunken floor, in the above space, there will be what is informally called ' kalyana koodam'- tall madras terraced roof with teak wood rafters and windows on side walls for better sunlight, aeration and reduced heat radiation. For extra safety to avoid burglary or entry of monkeys, etc the open space at ceiling level is covered with thick iron rods riveted to iron angles covering the entire open space. This space is used for conducting small family functions, ceremonies, etc
|The agraharam-style house still retains its old charm. kalyana koodam-.www.thehindu.com|
10. On the other side of the mudalkattu, the space around the mithaam is used for receiving guests. and relaxation. This space will also have a swing (in Tamil oonjaal) with long wide wooden plank. In some houses, there will be a small pooja room or space for puja.
11. In the second portion (irandaam kattu) - the living quarters there will be bed rooms, additional rooms for storing valuables, etc.
12. In the third portion (moondram kattu), there will be kitchen and dinning area, and storage space. There will be a separate room for storage of groceries. There will be a small puja room or recessed space on the wall with door. The kitchen will have a simple counter for cooking, etc with simple chimney above it. This part of the house will have well protected sky space for ventilation and provision for water.
13. All parts of the house will have sufficient gradient to drain water. Floor washing is done twice a week and also on festival days.There will be a common spacious covered drainage provision and the waste water will be collected in the yard garden where they will be absorbed by the soil and trees.
14. Tulasi (basil plant) maadam (platform) and water well will be in the rear part of the kitchen. Since the advent of electricity in the early 1940s many rich families had installed pump motors to get water from the well.
15. Yet another feature is there will be a small separate room with all facilities on a separate side of the house for the family women who go through the monthly 'period' - mensuration cycle; normally women or girls are not allowed beyond the room during this time.
16. The settlement is far away from the business district in the case of big towns so that it retains the residential character - quiet, peaceful, clean and tidy and no pollution.
17. A typical agraharam in those days was not only a quiet residential settlement but also was a fusion of architecture and typical Brahmin culture. Life here starts in the early morning and by nine every body will retire to his home. On week ends there will be Bhajans or some religious discourse in the temple there.
Reasons for the disappearance of agraharams:
A garland with open ends - Agraharam - a remnant of our old heritage and part of Brahmin culture, has disappeared in many parts, particularly in Tamil Nadu after 1965 for several reasons 1. Agricultural land reforms introduced in the 1950s and 1960s, 2. Political, 3. Poor employment prospects in the state government due to introduction of quota system, 4. major migration of younger generation well- educated Brahmins to urban areas and western countries for higher education and employments, 5. Because of fast phase of urbanization, existing houses are replaced by the modern building either by the Brahmin owner or a new owner. 06. Kerala government is making sincere efforts to preserve this old heritage site which is a good model of community living in the by-gone days.
Brahmin community boasted of high morality, integrity, Bhakti (devotion to God), ethics and fine arts - Carnatic music - vocal and instrumental and Bharata Natyam. They typified an intellectual community.