Pongal (Telugu: Sankranthi ), a four-day festival is an important festival in Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Srilanka and other countries where Tamil speaking people live. It is a harvest festival that falls on 14 January to 16 January (vide Gregorian Calendar). It marks the end of Tamil month Margazhi on 14 January and the beginning of the first day of Thai -15 January. Also called Thai Pongal, it corresponds to Makara Sankranthi, the winter harvest festival celebrated throughout India. Thai is the traditional month of weddings and family cermonies.
Fascinating facts of the Pongal festival:
01. Astronomically speaking, the day marks the Uttarayanam or Uttarayana Kaalam - the beginning of the sun’s six-month long journey northwards towards equinox, corresponding to the Indic solstice when the sun enters the 10th house of the Indian zodiac Makara or Capricorn. Thai Pongal is a sort of thanksgiving festival to the Sun God - Surya for his relentless routine work without which successful harvest is impossible. The festival consists of cooking of sweetened rice food called Pongal, first dedicated to the Sun.
02. Pongal is a festival of great antiquity, dating as far back as 1000 plus years as confirmed by the epigraphical evidence found in the Puthiyeedu during the Medieval Chola empire days. Puthiyeedu refers to the very first harvest of the year.
03. Commonly in the month of Thai (January-February ) cash crops like rice, sugarcane, turmeric etc., are harvested. Hence, Pongal festival is associated with the annual harvest season.
04. The term 'pongal' in Tamil means "to boil over", symbolic of our happiness and agricultural produce overflowing the brim. This festival is celebrated as a thanksgiving day for the sun god. People of all castes celebrate Pongal with religious zeal. Particularly in the rural areas, it is very popular and the farm workers get a reward called Pongl Enam in the form of cash, clothes, etc.
05. This festival is called Makara Sankaranthi in Andhra and other states, Bihu in Bihar and Uttarayana in Rajasthan and Gujarat and Maghi in Punjab and Hariyana.
06. Pongal is the name of a dish consumed during this festive time, which is sweetened rice boiled with lentils, etc.
07. During the auspicious days of any month in Tamil Nadu, offering of Pongal Prasadam is a common one and this traditional practice at Hindu temples has been in vogue for centuries. It is prepared in the temple kitchen called Madappalli in Tamil and the cooks are from the local Brahmin community.
08. The Bhogi festival, celebrated in honor of Lord Indra, the god of rain, is the first day of Pongal. Lord Indra is responsible for the abundance of harvest, thereby bringing plenty and prosperity to the land. Also referred to as Bhogi Mantalu, on this day, it has been a tradition to clean the household. Useless items are disposed of by way of creating a bonfire into which they are thrown. This implies getting rid of all the negative elements that create negative energy and making room for positive energy in the house.
09. The bonfire is made of traditionally cow dung cakes and firewood. but, it is not so, nowadays.
|Kolam drawn in front of houses. en.wikipedia.org/|
|earthen pot, pongal cooking in the open before temple. India Today|
11. In front of the houses in the early morning of the Pongal day, the ladies after a head bath, draw kolams - rangoli of various geometric patterns and colors. This is done to invite deities, meaning inviting positive energy into the household.
|Kolam drawn in front of houses.en.wikipedia.org/|
|Pongal klam, rangoli, tamil nadu.sscrecruitmentresults.in|
|Tamil nadu women worship the cow. NDTV.com|
|decorated bull pongal. Sadhguru|
14. Kaanum (or Kanu) Pongal is the final day of the Pongal festival. The ritual involves putting the left over of Pongal, venn pongal (unswetened) etc., on a cleaned long turmeric leaf in the open courtyard of the house. It also contains bits of banana, sugarcane, etc. This is done by young girls / women, praying for the welfare and longevity of their brothers. Aarthi is performed for the brothers with turmeric water mixed with lime and rice. Elderly people make a mark with turmeric on their forehead so that they can lead a long happy wedded life - as Sumangali.
15. On this day, people consume a variety of cooked rice food such as coconut bath (saatham / food), pongal, pulliyotharai (tamarind bath) curd bath, etc., along with vegetable dishes.
With the advent of Tamil month Thai, the first Tamil month, important family functions, weddings will take place. Business people open new businesses in this auspicious month, befitting the Tamil adage "Thai pirandhaal vazhi pirakkum" meaning with the birth of Thai, a new path will be in sight to put our worries behind.
Money earned from a good harvest forms the economic basis for weddings, opening new business ventures, buying houses, etc.