Sunday, 5 April 2020

Patriot Vanchinathan who shot dead Collector Ashe, a fitting memorial in his birth place.

Across Tamil Nadu, South India  one can see  countless statues of various sizes and types of  well-known political leaders in towns and cities. These  statues assume importance only on the birthday/or death anniversary of the leader  and rest of the year they remain unattended and poorly cared for. On many of these statues, the garland (that adorned it on the birthday) remains very much there for months together with dried withered petals or shrunken in size  exposing the thread inside. The sad part is these leaders  had neither made an iota of sacrifices for the freedom of our country, nor had they at least courted arrest once during the tumultuous period of freedom struggle. 
Veera Vanchinathan memorial, Shenkotta, TN

Veera Vanchinathan memorial, Shenkotta, TN
Can you believe until 2013 there had been no memorial hall or a statue in honor of patriot Vanchinathan in this state?  The people belonging to Tirunelveli  district had been demanding it for a long time. The late CM Jayalalithaa   fulfilled  the long-felt demand  for a memorial dedicated to freedom fighter R. Vanchinathan in the 3rd week of December, 2013 by declaring open the memorial in Shencottah, his birth place.  An amount of Rs. 50 lakh was allocated  for the memorial, which had a bust of the martyr. It is quite befitting that a mandabam (hall) is built to honor this patriot so that the younger generation can get inspiration from Veera Vanchinathan  to inculcate patriotism and nation-building in a democratic  society.
Patriot veera Vanchinathan, TN.

Vanchnathan  (1886-1911)  was a daring freedom fighter. Being a follower of V.O. Chidambaram , he was quite saddened the way British treated him, a lawyer of repute, labor leader and a freedom fighter. In the matter of Coral Mills, Tuticorin (Thuthukudi), VOC solved the labor problem amicably and A& F Company that ran the mills was not happy about VOC's interference in the company matter.  In collusion with Collector  and District Magistrate Robert William D' Escourt Ashe, they gave him all kinds of problems. Ashe, it is said, played a key role in setting road blocks for the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company, founded by VOC in 1906. This company was competing with the Shipping Co run by A & F.
According to a publication of the Crime Branch - Criminal Investigation Department (CB-CID) released in 2011, Vanchinathan and other revolutionaries had a grudge against the Collector for his biased decision involving VOC. What angered him most was VOC
 and his friend  Subramania Shiva, were
charged with sedition and  given rigorous imprisonment,  causing unprecedented protest  (in 1908)  Tirunelveli district   in violation of governments  orders not to enter the  Tirunelveli district, held public meetings in Tirunelveli town. Soon VOC's shipping Co  became broke and VOC's life was ruined.
patriot Veera Vanchinathan

Killing  somebody is a heinous crime and ardent Hindus never do 
it and there is no justification for it. During India' freedom struggle, patriots  across took to violence in extreme cases against the extremely arrogant and haughty British officials  The case in point is killing of British officer Rand. W.C. Rand, Pune Municipal commissioner   was assassinated by the Chaphekar brothers on July 22, 1898  for his humiliating actions against the Indian women during the plague pandemic. He allowed the British soldiers to strip the Hindu women in public in the name of body searching for symptoms of plague attack. This led to instances of rape.
Vanch maniachi, TN location map.
Vanchnathan and his associates came to the fag end of their patience against the obnoxious British officials.  With no choice on hand, Vanchi and other patriots wanted to get rid of Ashe soon for his unethical and dishonest act as a public servant. 
On June 17, 1911, Vanchinathan along with his accomplice, Madasamy, entered the Maniachi railway junction. The collector and family members were on the way to Kodaikonal hill resort  and Vanchi entered the  train  compartment on the sideline and fired at the Collector point blank, using an automatic Belgian-made Browning pistol, the police document says. Later  around 11-30 a.m, the Collector died of internal hemorrhage.  Vanchinathan entered a toilet and shot himself dead to avoid capture and Madasamy escaped and was never caught.

Saturday, 4 April 2020

Speech, an important part of Coronavirus infection - Indians need to be extra careful!!
World over almost all leaders keep advising people to maintain social distancing and self-isolation  in a lock-down situation to retard the spreads of covid-19 that increases exponentially once it strikes an area. Now, the world-wide toll is more than 60,000 and 1.1million people have been infected by the virus and medical experts are keeping their fingers crossed as to when its ferocity will come to an  and the world will be relieved of all pains of suffering and death.
  In India the infection is  is gradually picking up and in many states people fail to follow the guidelines. The recent mass gathering of Muslims in Delhi (March, 2020) despite  the government's warning is a cause for concerns among the Indians. Recently, in south Tamil Nadu, though the state is under lock down till 14th April several hundred people, including youths gathered in a mosque and were forced by the police to disperse them. A section of the people have not yet understood the savagery of this dangerous virus and its impact on the society as whole.    

With no cure in sight,  social distancing is the only  option we have  to avoid pushing ourselves into a precarious position in the next few weeks from which redemption is difficult.  Regarding corona infection, yet another important fact that we may not be aware of is our speech also plays a key role in spreading infection  among people in close physical contact. Please read the article below:

According to aerosol scientists,  social-distancing has an added advantage in controlling infection. They are of the view that  normal speech by individuals who are asymptomatic but infected with coronavirus may produce enough aerosolized particles to transmit the infection. Though the link between the  spread of virus and normal speech is not scientifically proven, it is imperative to emphasis strict social distancing measures for virologists, epidemiologists and engineers who study aerosols and droplets to work together on this and other  respiratory diseases.

William Ristenpart, professor of chemical engineering at UC, Davis, USA says  ordinary speech creates significant quantities of aerosols from respiratory particles as you may be aware aerosols are particles small enough to travel through the air. These respiratory particles  too small to see  with the naked eye  - about one micron, or one micrometer, in diameter;  but, are  large enough to carry viruses such as influenza or SARS-CoV-2.

Last year, Ristenpart,  his graduate student and colleagues published a paper in which they mentioned that  'the louder one speaks, the more particles are emitted and that some individuals are "superemitters" who give off up to 10 times as many particles as others', depending on the nature of their voice and its modulation.  In a follow-up study published in January last year in PLOS One, they  went deeper and investigated which 'speech sounds are associated with the most particles'.

Calculating just how easily a virus like SARS-CoV-2 spreads through droplets  is a difficult one and it needs knowledge of other related fields.  Virologists need to know how many viruses are present in the lung fluid and how many of them form into droplets  and how many viruses are needed to form an infection. Aerosol scientists can study the travel mechanism of such droplets once they are out of our body. They need to know how far once expelled,  the droplets travel, how they are affected by air motion in a room and how fast they settle out  due to gravity.

Ristenpart and colleagues conclude. "The aerosol science community needs to step up and tackle the current challenge presented by COVID-19, and also help better prepare us for inevitable future pandemics,"
 In countries like India natives speak  a lot and many in a loud manner. So social distancing coupled  with  silence  (zipped-up mouth) will help us a lot in controlling the virus.  The Nizamuddin (Delhi) gathering by the Muslims - the Tablighi Jamaat, in which more than 3000 people gathered in the second  week of March defying  central government's lock-down order  and their mingling with  many corona-infected world religious leaders has  become a subject of debate because this gathering  already impacted the spread of the virus in many states, the most affected being Tamil Nadu. What we need is discretion in this hour of horrible pandemic and it is the responsibility of every citizen to follow the Govt. guidelines. Think about your family, children and people in your neighborhood. 
 An aerosol (abbreviation of "aero-solution") is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in air or another gas. Aerosols can be natural or anthropogenic. Natural aerosols are fog, mist, dust, forest exudates and geyser steam.  Anthropogenic aerosols are particulate air pollutants and smoke. The liquid or solid particles
Mist and clouds are natural aerosols
have diameters typically less than 1 μm; larger particles with a significant settling speed make the mixture a suspension, but the distinction is not clear-cut. In common parlance aerosol refers to an aerosol spray that delivers a consumer product from a can or similar container. .... (
(April 03, 2020 from Materials provided by University of California - Davis. Original written by Andy Fell)

Dr. Acacio Gabriel Viegas - the first Indian doctor to discover the 1896 plague of Bombay, British India

Dr. Acacio Gabriel Viega, first reported plague attack in Bombay, 1896 /
Dr. Acacio Gabriel Viega, first reported plague attack in Bombay, 1896
Acacio Gabriel Viegas (1 April 1856 -1933), a native of Arpora, Goa, West India,  was the first  medical practitioner in Bombay city (Mumbai) to have noticed  symptoms of plague attack near Bombay port in 1896 and soon the first one to have noticed  the outbreak of bubonic plague there.  When the Raj, not knowing the nature of the disease  was quite alarmed when it started spreading fast, those in the medical field were confused by this disease which saw a mass exodus from the city. Besides, it had  badly hit the commence and the flourishing textile industry.
spraying on infected buildings. 1896

It was his timely discovery and  prompt reporting to the British administration helped save many lives in the city. On Sept. 23 1896, a standing committee reviewed Dr. Viegas' findings on 
the plague cases. On 29 September, Lord Sandhurst, the Governor
 of Bombay, sent a telegram to Lord Elgin, the Governor General 
of India, notifying him of an outbreak of plague in Bombay city.  
Dr Viegas  went down to the roots and  identified the disease as bubonic plague. Later reports  by four independent  teams of  experts  confirmed Dr. Viegas' findings.  
The cases were mostly reported from places close to the Bombay docks and nearby.  Dr Viegas  then launched a massive  campaign to clean up slums  and Chawals  and  recommended extermination of rats, the carriers of the plague (apparently diseased rats came from Hong Kong visa the Opium Ships).  To fight the epidemic hard, he embarked on the mammoth task of  carrying out inoculation of 18,000 residents - effective precautionary efforts  taken on a war-footing.  Identifying rats as carriers helped combat the spread as well. 
A graduate of Grant Medical College and passed his LMS examination in first class, Dr. Acacio Gabriel Viegas was the
first Indian Christian to be elected to the Municipal Corporation of Bombay in 1888.
Dr. Accacio Gabriel Viegas, Mumbai,
Citation-Dr. Gabriel Viegas, Mumbai, Maharashtra
There is a   free-standing statue in front of Framjee Cowasjee Institute and it was built as a tribute by the citizens of Bombay in 1936 for timely saving people in thousands. Dr. Viegas was a resident of Cavel for a while and the main street there is still named after him.
Dr. Viegas Street, Cavel, Mumbai,
Hailing from Goa (Arpora), Acacio Viegas  completed his matriculation in 1874  with a distinction. He then joined the Grant Medical College, securing a First Class in the L.M. & S. degree examination held in 1880. Viegas then set up practice at Mandvi in the south Bombay which is close to the busy Bombay harbor.  Being a man of affable nature, he had wide contact with all kinds of people and this encouraged him  to make contribution to the social and civil problems of Bombay. Between 1888 and 1907 he successfully contested the  civic elections. His dedicated services to the public saw him becoming the President of  the Bombay Municipal Corporation in 1906. During his tenure, being an active committee member, Dr. Viegas   paid more attention to improving the living conditions of the city's poor and down-trodden. He reduced the  public utility costs and at the same time promoted medical relief and introduced compulsory free education.

Apart, in the area of education, as  a member of the Bombay University Syndicate, and a  pioneer of the Faculty of Scientific Technology, he encouraged women to enter colleges and, in this regard, he supported the creation of special colleges for women. He  also served as a Medical Examiner  at the degree level and was Foundation-Fellow of the College of Physicians and Surgeons.

 After his death in 1933, a life-size statue of him was erected in the Cowasji Jehangir Hall across  Metro Cinema as part of his birth centenary celebration in 1956, by the then  Governor of Bombay Presidency, Harekrushna Mahtab. A great  tribute to his  medical  services in the city in the crucial time. A street in the Dhobitalao area carries his name as a token of gratitude by the people whose  forefathers he saved from the dangerous claws of death in 1896.

Friday, 3 April 2020

The 1896-97 palgue attack in Bombay and Pune - first major event that fastened India's freedom struggle against the British

Bombay plague 1896-97
If you recall the history of India's freedom struggle against the British, the tragic events between 1896 to early 1940s   such as the bubonic plague of Bombay and Pune - 1896-97, the Spanish flu of 1918, unwanted entry of  British India and Indian soldiers in WWI, the barbaric and horrible massacre of more than 400 innocent people in Jallianwalla Bagh, Amritsar  of Punjab -April, 1919, participation of Indian soldiers  again in WWII and the great Bengal famine of  1940s  had highly impacted the call  for India's freedom. The very first major impact came from the Indian nationalists in the wake of  1896-97 plaque attack in Bombay and Pune cities and it was followed by the outbreak of the Spanish flu of 1918.
.Bombay plague 1896-97.
How did the plaque of 1896-97 in  Pune and Bombay give an  effective impetus to  India's freedom  movement against  the British  Crown?   The following are maim reasons:
01. The Bombay Municipal corporation with a population of 8.2 lakhs  did not pay attention to  the well-being of the working classes who lived in slums and chawls. Many  diseases were endemic to them and  least attention was paid to  the sanitation of such areas by the colonial rulers.
02. When the first case of the plague attack was reported near Bombay port in September, 1896, the British administration did not take it  seriously. 
Clipper ship. opium trade British India and China.
03. When the Raj  came to know that the plague was first landed in Bombay via disease-carrying rodents  on the  Bombay-bound ships from Hong Kong after unloading the opium chests, they failed to take action. They did not disinfect the opium ships and the port area of Bombay .
04. What infuriated the Indian leaders was the British never ordered the closure  of Bombay harbor and  ban on ships from  Hong Kong even after knowing the sources of plague, China. They continued the illegal opium trade via Bombay and Hong Kong and kept the ports functional.
1896 Plague landed in Bombay from China via opium ships
05. They failed to plug the main sources of plague and, to them silver from China was more important than the precious lives of Indians and their welfare.
06. Because of belated response from the health department and medical experts, the plague began to spread faster then expected in Bombay and other adjacent areas. Besides, hurriedly drafting and writing new Epidemic Disease Act of 1897, the Raj  gave harsh punishment to Indians, including women and children.

07. Quite obnoxious was the way  Pune Asst Commissioner W.C Rand and his  officials implemented the laws. They, without scruples, subjected the Indian women to ill-treatment. They tested  the dignity of native Indians by way of  stripping them naked publicly, including women  and ransacking their homes and burning their personal belongings, food, etc. All these were done in the name of  controlling the spread of plague in Pune and  examination of the body.
08. According to some reports,  there were some cases  of soldiers raping women under the pretext of body-searching, though such reports were denied by Rand. 09.  It was in this hour of the plague pandemic, grief and pain,  Bal Gangadar Tilak  who underwent imprisonment for 18 months for his writings  against the highhandedness of British officials in the Pune plague made a strong ststement:  ''Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it''. This  catchy slogan caught the attention of countless patriots across India and gave an impetus to India's freedom struggle.
10. The New York Times  reported in 1897 a statement made by a  Christian priest:  'the city was facing two kinds of deadly diseases and both deadly - natives dying by hunger, overseers stealing the supplies''
11. The crowded detection centers  set by the Raj aggravated the grave situation in Bombay. 
12. The ill treatment of Indians continued for some time and this led to  unrest among the people.  W.C. Rand  was assassinated by the Chaphekar brothers on July 22, 1898  for his humiliating actions against the Indian women.
In 1900,  the mortality rate from plague was about 22 per thousand for various reasons, late  healthcare efforts taken by the British,  crowded places, certain communities' refusal to cooperate with the government guide lines. were the underlying causes.

In the subsequent years protests against British atrocities and 
their dishonest dealings in India gathered more momentum. Consequently,  Indian national leaders began to give more pressure to the colonial rulers to hand over the freedom to the Indians soon and leave the Indian shores for good.

Thursday, 2 April 2020

The bubonic plague of India 1896-97 originated in China - many lessions we have learned from it

1896 plague in Bombay.
Dr Accacio Viegas'statue in Mumbai; first to notice  plague in Mumbai

In  1896-97, during the British Raj Bombay city and Pune of  the Bombay Presidency (now Maharastra) were ravaged by
the global 3rd plague pandemic. Caused by  the bacterium Yersinia pestis, it spreads  by fleas that reside on the dead bodies of small animals like rodents of central Asia, this infectious and dangerous disease  is capable of killing a large  swathe of the population if  properer medical care is not taken in time. The first doctor to notice the case of plague in Bombay near the harbor  was one Dr Accacio Viegas in his sixties. Being  an affable man, he had a flourishing medical practice in Bombay.  On Sept. 23 1896, a standing committee reviewed Dr. Viegas' findings on the plague cases. On 29 September, Lord Sandhurst, the Governor of Bombay, sent a telegram to Lord Elgin, the Governor General of India, notifying him of an outbreak of plague in Bombay city.
Bubonic plague
The following are the causes of rapid spread of plague and the lessons we learn from it:
01. Ironically,  like Covid-19 virus that is right now turning the whole world upside down, the bubonic plague  had its origin in Western Yunnan in China.
opium  problem in China and the british
02, It happened  when the lucrative opium trade from British India  to China was rapidly filling the British treasury with money in  the form of silver. Better sea-transport was an added advantage at that point of time. A part of Chinese population  became zombies because of opium  addiction  and supplies  from British India continued.
03. The plague began with an epidemic and started spreading among the overcrowded migrants - Han Chinese in Yunnan  killing hundreds of thousands.

04. The plague  sneaked into India via  Bombay port  from  Hong Kong as the British  were illegally dumping opium in China by running opium-laden ships between Bombay and Hong Kong. 

05. The flea-infected rodents via these opium ships landed in India  and the first case was detected in Mandavi, a crowded locality near the Bombay harbor.

06. The British, money minded as they were,  had kept  the opium trade going and the ports  functional  despite reports of plague attack. 

07. The Raj  preferred the needed silver from China to native Indians' health; their  gross  negligence in the early stages of the pandemic helped the plague spread  fast and wide.

08. The crowded, densely populated city became an easy target for the plague, a highly infectious disease. Being a commercial hub, there lived a large influx of  migrant workers in  slums and shanty places with poor sanitary conditions. Here in chawls,  many  diseases were endemic; the British never looked after the living quarters of the poor.  Over-crowding was the main problem. 

09.  In cities like Bombay,  communities like Jains, Bhatias and Banias, living in crowded places like the Chawls, were against killing of rats  due to their religious belief of ''Ahimsa''.  

10.  A section of people of  Bombay - 1896-97 refused to co-operate with the  govt guidelines.  Normally, people cutting across caste, religions, etc  have to cooperate with the government if a pandemic situation prevails. Non-cooperation meant results would be disastrous.

11. This was the time the Epidemic Disease Act of 1897  was hurriedly  drafted and introduced by the  British  the direction of Sir W.C.Rand, an arrogant officer to deal with certain sections of people.
12.  The belated anti-plague measures taken by the British  attracted many criticism and  were  widely regarded as over-stepping on the privacy of the natives.

13.  Many  national leaders, quite disappointed with the British's careless approach to the inherent health problems of the natives during the plague crisis, began to raise their voice for freedom from Britain. Their push for freedom was, this time,  loud and clear  and much stronger than ever before.   

14. The initial response to the plague outbreak was segregation and hospitalization. In October, 1896 a government order asked all persons suspected of having plague to be removed to hospitals and separated from the rest of the population.  

15. The government banned the conduct of fairs/melas and  pilgrimages  to religious places. The police stopped and road and rail travelers interrupted for inspection. 

16.  The hospitals were not well-equipped to handle a large number of cases. A greater part of the revenue from India was transferred to England for the growth of British  industries and their economy. 

17.  Crowded detention centers and people's non-cooperation further aggravated the spread of the disease. As for sanitation of towns and cities, the Raj did not take enough efforts to improve them. 
Bombay plague
18.  In addition to it, the poor natives never gave importance to the cleanliness of the surrounding places where they lived. These factors  further impacted  the spread of  plague.
The mortality rate of the natives  due to  bubonic plague in the 
Bombay Presidency could have been prevented had the Raj taken seriously  health care precautions in the early stages - the moment  first case appeared near Bombay dock.

India's 123 year old Epidemic Disease Act of 1897- Modi administration invoked it to contain covid 19!

India: The Epidemic Disease Act of 1897

The Covid-19 outbreak in India has made the Indian administrators  to go back on the early colonial period  under the British Crown when part of the globe was experiencing  the 3rd plague pandemic  that affected many countries in  1896-97.  Pune  and Bombay cities  in Maharastra  state (then Bombay Presidency) were  struck  by bubonic plague and the casualty was a huge one running into one million plus. 

The Modi Govt in the present corona crisis  relied on the  century-old, Colonial Era law that gives state-level governing bodies  extraordinary powers to control the disease, if it is a contagious and dangerous one.  Such  stringent laws are rooted in the Epidemic Disease Act of 1897 hurriedly  drafted and introduced by the  British during the Bombay  plague.  The law allows state govt. to take special and essential measures in case it is ''threatened with the outbreak of any dangerous epidemic disease.'  The plague, first detected in Bombay,  later spread to places like Punjab, Bengal, the United Province (now UP) and  then to Burma. The western and eastern India experienced the worst and in 1901, the toll was 400000 and in 1905, it moved  above   one million people. About 2500000 people died in Pune due to Plague, almost 300 to 400 daily. It was tough job to cremate the bodies. The damage continued for four more years.  This act became a necessity for the British to control the spread of plague as India happened to be a multi-cultural  conservative society with many  languages, various customs and beliefs.  At one stage the British soldiers in the name of searching for symptoms of plague commuted excesses that angered the people and the national leaders.
The Act has been routinely used by the Central government to contain various diseases in India such as swine flu, cholera, malaria and dengue. Earlier in  2018, the Act was enforced as cholera began to spread in a region of Gujarat. In 2015, it was used to deal with dengue and malaria in Chandigarh and in 2009 it was invoked in Pune to combat swine flu. At present, this act is enforced to contain Covid-19.
India: The Epidemic Disease Act of 1897
As  per the act, 'any person disobeying any regulation or order made under this Act shall be deemed to have committed an offense punishable under section 188 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).   No suit or other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for anything done or in good faith intended to be done under this Act'.
'Under the Act, a nominated officer was empowered to take any decision to control the epidemic. His powers included taking possession of suspected patient, controlling places of crowd and examining any individual or any place without permission from a legal authority'.
The Act also had a provision to send those opposing the examination to jail for up to six months.,_1897

Can the middle-aged people with hypertension do weight-lifting exercises?

Joy of weight lifting. //

World over in many countries, people are  presently experiencing long lock-down of cities, towns and districts  to control the spread of Covid-19 virus. Once we successfully pass through this crucial stage in the next one month or so, it is likely, the impact of this scourge that originated from China on the death toll will be far  less than what medical experts  have projected.  
I have heard many people complain in the media that  they feel bored/dejected and depressed being at home continuously for days together.  It is true that the tedium and ennui  will take away the joys of your life,  staying within the confines of four walls with no fresh air.  We have to presume that it is only a temporary phase as the whole world is experiencing the pandemic. To keep your self engaged, spend some time on prayers if you are religious, on writing if you are a writer, on painting if you are good at it. You have many options, depending on your interest.  Whatever you do,  do it with joy.

As for physical activity to keep you mind active, try it as much as you can within in your living space. What about weight lifting? We are aware that regular aerobic exercise is good for you health because it  can improve blood  circulation and reduce blood pressure.  If  you are hypertensive, though medical reports come up with different results, it is a good idea if you will just be content with aerobic exercise like skipping at home.  What about middle-aged people who go for weight-lifting?  For years doctors warned  BP patients against weight lifting because BP will spike during strenuous lifting.  However, recent studies -  called  meta-analysis have shown that weight lifting reduces resting blood pressure, because with stronger muscles, there is less demand on the heart during everyday activities.  In a study published in the  journal hypertension based on 11 clinical trials with 182 adults who lifted weights  several times a week  and 138 who did not it  was found that  weight training lowered resting systolic blood pressure (the top number in a pressure reading) by 2 percent, and diastolic pressure by about 4 percent — small gains that can greatly improve cardiovascular health.

Some doctors say that people above 45 must consult a doctor if they engage in weight-lifting as part of their physical exercise regimen.  In countries like India,  hypertensive people are  discouraged to involve in weight-lifting. 
 Let us see why doctors are against the lifting of weights by hypertensive people.  Weight-lifting or isotonic exercises  are high intensity activities for a short duration. The contracting muscles exert pressure on the arterioles causing increased peripheral  vascular resistance . In this situation, the heart will pump more  forcefully to get the blood moving. Both increased vascular resistance and contractility of the heart muscle will increase the blood pressure.  Middle aged people, it is said, must avoid isometric contractions (where muscle tension increases without any movement).

jogging  in a park.

Regular aerobic exercises reduce BP and cardiac function.  Such exercises remain sustained for a long time  and this causes dilation of the  arterioles in the muscles in order to supply more blood to the exercising muscles. By increasing the venous blood flow  from the legs to the heart and  by reducing the resistance in the arterioles, the heart is able to pump blood with considerable ease.
 In a reduced space under total-lock down situation,  simple skipping is a good bet for people above  the middle age.