Saturday, 19 August 2017

Fascinating Rajabai Clock Tower, Mumbai

The-Rajabai-Clock-Tower-and-the-Mumbai-University- Hindustan Times
The Rajabai Clock Tower, located in the Fort campus of the University of Mumbai, South Mumbai  is a tall clock tower (height of 85 or 280 ft)equal to a 25-story building.

The Rajabai Clock Tower,Mumbai. Alamy


Designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, an English architect, it is based on the model on Big Ben in London. It took nine years to complete the construction work that began on 1 March 1869; work completed  in November 1878. The total cost of construction was Rs.550,000, a  whooping  sum in those days. A portion of the construction cost was borne by one Premchand Roychand, a highly successful broker who founded the Bombay Stock Exchange. The donation was made by him on condition that the tower must be be named after his blind mother Rajabai. The evening  chime of the tower helped her to know the time for her dinner without anyone's help.
 

Rajabai Clock Tower,Mumbai.  TTripHobo

Made of locally available buff coloured Kurla stone, the tower is a good example of the the blend of  Venetian and Gothic styles. The tower, it is said, has one of the best stained glass windows in the city.
The tower has  a ground floor with two big side rooms,  a carriage porch 2.4 m² (26 ft²), and a spiral staircase vestibule of 2.6 m² (28 ft²). The Tower, over the carriage porch, has a square shape up  to the gallery at the top of the first level (68 feet or 20.7 m) from the ground. The structural  form changes from a square to an octagon and the height from this gallery to the top of the tower is 118 feet (36 m).  The third stage to the top of the finial is 94 feet (28.7 m), thus making a total height of 280 feet (85 m).
Rajabai Clock Tower  is  brightly lit during the night. It currently chimes only one tune every 15 minutes. During the British rule under the crown the tower clock could play sixteen tunes; some were   "Rule Britannia", "God Save the King", A Handel Symphony",etc. The tunes changed four times a day.

Rajabai Clock Tower,Mumbai. The Hindu
Thanks to the joint efforts by Tata Consultancy Services  the Indian Heritage Society. the heritage clock tower under went restoration work between From Oct 2013 to 11 May 2015. TCS offered Rs 3 crores for the second phase of the restoration work. 

Tit-Bits:

01. The 2013-2015 major restoration work was the one first since its construction in 1878.

02.  The English architect Sir George Gilbert Scott who designed the Rajbai clock tower who did not make a  visit to India for the purpose.

03.  The beautiful sculptures (on the surface of the clock structure) and interiors (of the adjoining library) were made by Indian artisans and the students of JJ School of Art under the guidance of Sir Lockwood Kipling, their art teacher and illustrator.
04. The clock tower and the library are built with four types of stones — Porbandar limestone, basalt, red Dharangdhara and Malad stone (Malad and Kurla regions of Bombay  had large stone quarries in those days).


http://www.hindustantimes.com/art-and-culture/insider-s-guide-to-rajabai-clock-tower/story-9Y1gNvrd1Yj1ormNC2DegL.html.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajabai_Clock_Tower




Massive Allahabad Fort built by Akbar


The city of Allahabad, in Uttar Pradesh has many colonial as well as Mogul monuments and these historical places attract lots of tourists. The huge fort built by famous Mogul ruler Akbar is an interesting one. 

Allahabad Fort Travel Ka Baap


indiaprofile.com
Natural lighting. Allahabad Fort:TripAdvisor


Allahabad Fort was built by Emperor Akbar at Allahabad  in 1583 AD. The massive fort standing on the banks of the river Yamuna near the confluence with river Ganges  is recognised by the Archaeological Survey of India as a monument of national importance. 

Known for  it’s architectural design and excellence,  the Allahabad Fort is the largest fort constructed by Akbar with three magnificent galleries that are flanked by high towers. The outer wall is in good shape and rises above the water's edge. The fort encloses  Akshayavat or "immortal tree". Legends say that whoever jumps from this centuries-old banyan tree,  will attain immortality. Civilians are not allowed to see this tree. When Akbar built the fort, he did not disturb the tree; it is near the southern waIl. Inside the fort one would find the Zenana (royal ladies quarters), Palace of Mariam-uz-Zamani and the 3rd century BCE Ashoka pillar. Yet another attraction in the fort is  the Saraswati Koop, said to be the source of the Saraswati river, and the Patalpuri temple are also here.


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allahabad_Fort


Khusro Bagh, Allahabad, India - steeped in history

The tomb of Khusrau Mirza in Khusro Bagh Allahabad Alamy 

Khusrau, eldest son of JahangirFlowers of Indus Valley - blogger


Khusro Bagh, located in muhalla Khuldabad close to Allahabad railway station is one of the popular tourist spots  in Allahabad. It is roughly two miles from the Allahabad Fort built by Akbar (r. 1556-1605).  It is a large walled garden and burial complex and historically an important place,
covering  over forty acres. It houses a number of the tombs of of important people in history - Shah Begum (born Manbhawati Bai) (d. 1604), Jahangir's Rajput wife and the daughter of Maharaja Bhagwant Das and Khusrau Mirza's (d. 1622) mother; Khusrau Mirza, Jahangir's eldest son and briefly heir apparent to the Mughal throne; and Nithar Begum (d. 1624), Khusrau Mirza's sister and Jahangir's daughter. It is listed as an Indian Site of National Importance.

Decorated arch of the Tomb of Nithar wikimedia.org

The Mogul architecture is exhibited in the three sandstone mausoleums. Aqa Reza, Jahangir’s principal court artist beautifully designed the  main entrance, the surrounding gardens, and the three-tier tomb of Sultan Begum (died in 1604). Shah Begum, earlier name Man Bai (daughter of Raja Bhagvan Das of Amber)  was upset and dismayed over the bad relationship between her husband Jahangir and son Khusrau and ultimately  committed suicide in 1604 by swallowing opium. Her built in 1606 by Aqa Reza  is a three storied terrace plinth without a main mound.  The tomb however has a large chhatri that surmounts the plinth. The arabesque inscriptions that adorn her tomb were  done  by Mir Abdullah Mushkin Qalam, Jahangir's greatest calligrapher.
 
Tomb of Khusrau Mirza's sister, Nisar Begum.wikimedia.or

The tomb of Khusro's sister is design-wise and artistically elaborate. The central room has on its walls floral decorations depicting Persian cypresses, wine vessels, flowers and plants.

interior, the Tomb of Nithar Alamy


The tomb of Khusro ( 16 August 1587 -26 January 1622) is the last of the three in Khusro Bagh. Khusro was first imprisoned within the garden after he rebelled against his father, Jahangir, in 1606.
Prince Khusro was brutally murdered, when he was just 34,  in the war of succession. During the fight  to get the throne,  Prince Khurram,  another  son of Jahangir eliminated Khusro. After that he wrested the power from his father as well. Prince Khurram grew up to become Shah Jahan who built the Taj Mahal in the loving memory of his deceased wife. Khusrau's tomb was completed in 1622, while that of Nithar Begum's, which lies between Shah Begum's and Khusrau's tombs, was  constructed  in 1624-25. Nithar's mausoleum is however empty and it does not contain her mortal remains.

During the  1857 Sepoy Mutiny, Khusrau Bagh played a pivotal role and it served as the meeting place of the sepoy- rebels under Maulvi Liaquat Ali who took charge as the Governor of liberated Allahabad. However, it was put down by the British later.
The garden has now lend its name to the surrounding locality of  The name Khusrobagh is no longer confined to the garden; now it refers to the surrounding locality.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khusro_Bagh
 






 

 

Friday, 18 August 2017

Thornhill Mayne Memorial (Public Library), a fine colonial building, Allahabad



Allahabad. Thornhill Mayne Memorial,
en.wikipedia.org

 
traveltalk.co.in/?p=146

 Above image:  The  plaque  in the building carries this information: “This building which has received the name of the Thornhill-Mayne Memorial is erected in memory of Cudbert Bensley Thornhill, CSA &Francis Otway Mayne, C.B. both of Bengal Civil Service.

Who died the former on 11th July 1868 at sea off Aden, & the later On 30th August 1872 at  Allahabad.

The name preserves the memory of the close and uninterrupted friendship Which during their lives united them. The memorial itself bears lasting testimony to the affectionate regard in which they were built By those who caused it to be erected.”

...............(http://traveltalk.co.in/?p=146)

Thornhill Mayne Memorial, located in Alfred Park garden is also  popularly known as Public Library. This monument has historical significance because  it served as the house of legislative assembly during the British era.  Allahabad was then the  capital of United Provinces.

Established in 1864, it is the biggest library in the state of Uttar Pradesh and the building was  designed by Richard Roskell Bayne, a British engineer.. It is  a good example of Scottish Baronial architecture with sharp pillars and turrets of granite and sandstone;  such designs need skill and imagination.  In 1879, the Public library was shifted to the present premises at Alfred Park.

The library is a nice place for book worms, it has huge collection on books, etc covering various subjects. it has  a collection of roughly 125,000 books, 40 types of magazines and different newspapers in Hindi, English, Urdu, etc besides   a collection of old government publications, parliamentary papers, and blue books of the 19th century, old manuscripts and journals.

The building known as Thornhill Mayne Memorial represents structural polychrome with lofty towers and arcaded cloisters.The cost of the building
in 1870 was  Rs.94,222. 00.  Commissioner of Allahabad, Mr. Mayne provided the funds and it was opened as a  memorial to the friendship of Lord Thornhill, the Commissioner of Allahabad and Mr. Mayne, the Collector. Subsequently converted into a library. 
 
'Thornhill-Mayne Memorial, Allahabad, indianheritag


Tit-Bits:

Richard Roskell Bayne (1837–1901), an English architect who practised in Calcutta and other Indian cities between 1866–90 was an employee of the East Indian Railway. As a railway engineer, he built bridges, train stations, and bungalows, but he also had the opportunity to design monumental buildings such as the East India Railway Office and the New Market in Kolkata, the Hussainabad Clock Tower in Lucknow, the Oak Grove School in Mussoorie, and the palace of the Maharaja of Durbunga. When he retired, he left India and established himself as an architect in Victoria, B.C.... http://traveltalk.co.in/?p=146


 https://en.wikipedia.o/wiki/Allahabad_Public_Library

Allahabad High Court, one of the first High Courts established in India

Allahabad High Court Building Allahabad High Court

Allahabad High Court Building Neeraj Garg

During the East India company rule Allahabad was the seat of Government of North-Western Provinces  and obviously and a High Court was established in 1834. But, it was moved over to Agra within a year. For administrative reasons, the High Court was shifted in 1868 back to  Allahabad. It was functioning in the Accountant General's office at the University of Allahabad complex. Allahabad High Court  
was  one of the first high courts  to be established

exclusivecoins.blogspot.in

 Above image:  The above is an image of the second of the Maxim Cards showing the building of the Allahabad High Court. The two postage stamps depict the Allahabad High Court (Rs.15/- stamp) and the Lucknow Bench of the Allahabad High Court Rs.5/- stamp). The Cancellation is of New Delhi and is dated 13.03.2016............................

exclusivecoins.blogspot.in

exclusivecoins.blogspot.in
 Above image:  The above is an image of fifth of the Maxim Cards showing the building of Lucknow Bench of the Allahabad High Court. The two postage stamps depict the Allahabad High Court (Rs.15/- stamp) and the Lucknow Bench of the Allahabad High Court Rs.5/- stamp). The Cancellation is of New Delhi and is dated 13.03.2016.......................


 Established in 1869  the unique feature of this old  building is its double roofing, made with Allahabad Tiles on top, to beat the summer heat. This  building is most suitable to tropical climate. During the colonial time, there was no air-conditioning and countless buildings had high  ceiling with enough ventilation to keep the interior cool. Allahabad High court was built by Khan saheb Nizamuddin of Loha Mundi, Agra, India. He also donated the water fountain to the High court.

 Tit-Bits:

01. "But the building of the new High Court and of the new government offices, which are those excellent red rectangular two storied buildings still to be seen in Queens Road, was proceeding. The four blocks were designed by Colonel Peile, of the Public Works Department, the two on the west of Queens Road as the Government Secretariat and the Accountant General’s office respectively, and those on the east as the High court and the Board of Revenue. They are said to have cost thirteen lakhs, which by modern standards appears exceedingly cheap. The old ‘Gazetteer’ of the North-Western Provinces relates that the new High court was completed about 1870".
(http://www.allahabadhighcourt.in)

02. The name was correspondingly changed to the High Court of Judicature at Allahabad from 11 March 1919.
03. The Oudh Judicial Commissioner’s Court on 2 November 1925, the Oudh Judicial Commissioner’s Court was replaced by the Oudh Chief Court at Lucknow as per  the Oudh Civil Courts Act of 1925. It was enacted by the United Provinces Legislature with approval from the previous Governor General.

04. The Chief Court of Oudh was amalgamated with the High Court of Allahabad on 25 February 1948.

 05. When the state of Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal) was carved out of Uttar Pradesh in 2000, Allahabad high court ceased to have jurisdiction over the districts  that came under it.

06. The main seat of the court is at Allahabad and it  maintains a permanent circuit bench at Lucknow, the capital of the state. The maximum number of serving judges is 160, the highest in India.

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allahabad_High_Court

The Mayo Hall, Bangalore - a lasting memorial to Viceroy Lord Mayo


The Mayo Hall, Bangalore BangaloreBest.com

The Mayo Hall in Bangalore is an impressive building made of brick and mortar, still standing in its pristine glory without losing its historical and heritage values.  Like the Mayo Memorial at Allahabad, this structure was built in honor of  the then fourth Viceroy of India (1872), Lord Mayo who was killed while on official duty.  In the period 1869–1872, Mayo travelled extensively i across India and was greatly impressed, and stated that Britain 
should hold India "as long as the sun shines in heaven".When he was on an official visit to the Convict settlement at Port Blair, the Andaman Islands in February 1872, a convict by the name of Sher Ali Afridi, a  Pathan assassinated Sir Mayo with a knife.

It took a while to complete the building in Bangalore for various reasons; the work that began in 1875, was  completed only in 1883. Right from the outset the Bangalore Municipal Authority had begun functioning from here in 1883 on condition that the upper  floor should be made available to meeting of public nature without any charges. Institutions like the Mayo Hospital (1871) and the Mayo School of Arts at Lahore (1875), now in Pakistan  came up subsequently. The Mayo Hall is close to yet another colonial building previously called “station public offices”. It was built in 1904 and inaugurated by Sir James Bourdillion, the then British Resident in Mysore. This impressive block and Mayo Hall building enhance the beauty of this area, forming prominent part of the city. 

In  the Bangalore District Gazetteer (page No.946), it is mentioned that the cost of the building was  Rs 45,000.00 out of which Rs. 25,000.00 was met by way of public subscription. A sum of Rs 5,000 was spent on furnishing the place.
 
The Mayo Hall, Bangalore.trip2blr.com/


The Mayo Hall is adorned with  tall columns chandeliers, Greek cornices, Tuscan columns, stone arches, wooden floors and beautiful furnishing. The mouldings atop have minute friezes in mortar. The building has good elevation, pedimented windows, varied with key-storied arches, nicely executed consoles, finely executed balustraded ledges and typical Greek cornice, according to  the Gazetteer.

 The  Mayo Hall is atop a hilly area and offers a  panoramic view of adjacent places  such as Bangalore race course, Parade grounds, Brigade grounds, and the Lake Ulsoor.  It is  next to the Public Utility Building on M.G. Road

Lord MayoChughtai's Art Blog
 

Mayo Hall served as the office of the Bangalore Mahanagar Palike for a long time but today it has just a few offices of the BMP while some traffic courts also function inside the premises. BMP had built a fountain park in front of Mayo Hall to make it pleasant for the visitors.

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayo_Hall_(Bangalore)

Mayo Memorial Hall, Allahabad, a legacy of the British in UP

Mayo Memorial Hall, Allahabad - Government of Uttar Pradesh

Located near the Thornhill and Mayne Memorial in the city of Allahabad, UP,  the Mayo Memorial Hall is beautiful colonial building - a sort of Public Hall meant for public meetings, balls and receptions. It has a characteristic 180-ft high tower that is quite visible all around the site. Designed by R. Roskell Bayne, it was built in 1879 and named after Viceroy Lord Mayo (Richard Southwell Bourke, 6th Earl of Mayo KP GCSI PC ; 21 February 1822 – 8 February 1872), who was assassinated on  8 February, 1872. 

This murder of the highest public servant of British India   happened on his visit to the convict settlement at Port Blair, in the Andaman Islands  for inspection of prisons. He was knifed by one Sher Ali Afridi, an Afridi Pathan. He was buried in a Church graveyard in Johnstown, County Kildare, near his home at Palmerstown House, Ireland.

Indianetzone
The decorations in the interior of the Memorial Hall were based on designs by Professor Gamble, of the South Kensington Museum, London.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayo_

Memorial_Hall

Thursday, 17 August 2017

Kuthar fort - 800 year old fort in the wooded area, near Simla




Kuthar the Fort Land - WordPress.com

Because the incidence of foreign invasions was less and not highly risky centuries ago, the NE part of India do not have many big forts to boast of, unlike those in the NW part. However, in some places there are forts to guard against foreign invasions in the past. 

 The 800 years old Kuthar Fort is  one of the main tourist places to visit near Solan, 33.5 km from Solan and 52 km from Shimla. Originally built by the Gurkha Kings who ruled over this part of the land, the fort occupies a sprawling area of 52.8 sq km, consisting of  beautiful gardens, pools, fresh-water springs and ancient temples within the complex. 


kuthar fort near simla .trawell.in

Located atop the hill, part of Kuthar mountains at an altitude of about 1300 m, the Kuthar fort opens a vista of beautiful view of, the Simla valley  in the backdrop of the snow-clad peaks of the majestic Himalayan mountains and the near by  Subathu fort. Kuthar Fort that once served as the residence of the royal family of Kuthar was built in the Rajasthani style with Colonnades, convoluted pillars and arches, besides intricate wooden carvings and fine paintings.
In the interiors are found intricate wooden carvings and fine paintings that are simply catchy. a few parts of the fort were discovered recently and they are said to be just 80 years old. 

One fascinating feature that draws the attention of the tourists are the fresh water springs found within the  confines of the fort. This place, which is part of Kasauli range  is highly picturesque found amidst lush green hilly areas, very much similar to Gurkha Fort, Kunihar, and Kasauli hill station, the last one is just 15 km from here. Kuthar Palace is now a nice heritage resort, providing quiet ambiance to those who want to enjoy peace and tranquillity in the wooded area, far away from the madding crowd and urban ugliness. 

 The Kuthar Fort is in between the Subathu and Arki, barely one hour away from the Jubbarthi airport. In April 1948,  the state became part of Himachal Pardesh and  it was part of  Mahasu district till August 1972. Earlier, the Kuthar imperial state was under the control of  Rana of Kuthar-Arun Sen.

 https://www.trawell.in/himachal/shimla/kuthar-fort






Kowdiar Palace - historical residence of Travancore rulers


Kowdiar Palace, Trivandrum TechnoparkToday.com
Kowdiar Palace, Trivandrum wikimedia.org
There is no dearth of palaces in the state of Kerala. The princely state of Travancore had a close contact with the colonial rulers and to maintain their royal status and to entertain the visiting dignitaries, the rulers built palaces of beauty, elegance and simplicity. Simple in design and impressive, unlike the Mogul palaces or other Maharajahs' palaces, they are not highly embellished. They took pride in following the Kerala style of architecture, thus retaining the Kerala tradition of building design. Most of them have wooden ornate pillars beams, etc besides regular kerala features. Wood was widely used as Kerala occupies much of Western Ghat mountains.
 
The historical Kowdiar Palace was the residence of
Travancore Maharajahs and their families who were patrons of art, music and literature. Considered as one of fine palaces in Kerala, it is located in the capital city of Thiruvanathapuram and this three-storied building has as many as 150 rooms, wooden elevator and six beautiful steeples. As like other palaces in this state, it is built in typical Kerala style architecture that enhances the grandeur of this edifice.

Maharaja Moolam Thirunal Rama Varma,parayilat.blogspot.in/


Built during the reign of Sree Chithira Moolam Thirunal in 1934, this beautiful palace  was presented to Rani, Sethu Lekshmi Bayi on the occasion of her wedding - Pallikettu with  Col. G.V. Raja. Pursuant to Constitutional Amendment of 1971, the Royal family's estates were legally partioned and divided equally between  branches of the two Travancore Queens - Sethu Lakshmi Bayi and Sethu Parvathi Bayi. This Palace is owned by the heirs of Sethu Parvathi Bayi as it was built by her son Maharajah Sree  Chithira Thirunal

The last Raja Sree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma is buried in the this palace garden. The  Kowdiar Palace is only 14 kms from Thiruvananthapuram International airport and only 6 kms from Thiruvananthapuram Central Railway Station.
The palace can not be accessed by the Public as the royal members of the family use it. Places like Raj Bhavan, Kanakakkunnu Palace and Napier museum are near by  and worth a visit.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kowdiar_Palace

Remakkable British Officer Lord Mark Cubbon, builder of Mysore!!

Daily thousands of people visit the beautiful lush green park called Cubbon park in the heart of Bangalore city. Have we ever thought about who was Cubbon and why is the park named after him? With some exception, almost everybody will be blinking his eyes!

Sir Mark Cubbon,Commissioner, mysore State.Revolvy

 Lieutenant-General Sir Mark Cubbon KCB (23 August 1775 – 23 April 1861) was a British army officer during the East India company rule in India. He was a stickler for discipline and made a mark for  himself as an excellent administrator of  extraordinary efficiency, foresight and commitments. He was the longest  the British Commissioner of Mysore in 1834 if Karnataka (the areas that were once under the Mysore kingdom) state is what is today, it is because of Sir Cubbon.. 

During his tenure, he vastly improved the administration and  established  law and order system, besides introducing effective judicial and economic reforms. which stood in good stead in the later years. Prompt actions and correct execution in various fields helped improve the economy of Mysore. He tirelessly worked hard until 1860 when his poor-health forced him to resign the job and he left for England for the first time since his arrival in India as an humble employee in 1800. In 1802, he joined 2nd Madras Battalion. To put it in a nut shell, he was a Karma Yogi, a dedicated  worker whose level of efficiency is unimaginable. This is one of the reasons why the Kingdom of Mysore during the tumultuous 1957 Sepoy Mutiny did not experience any impact. Further, there was nothing to complain about the administration of  Lord Cubbon who was considerate to the natives and never interfered in their religious freedom, etc. 

Statue of Mark Cubbon, High Court,Bangalore Wikimapi

Born  at the vicarage of Maughold, Isle of Man on 23 August 1775, his father was Vicar Thomas Cubbon and his mother was Margaret Wilks. Cubbon was their 7th child and had his early education in a local Parish school before studying under the tutorship of Maddrell of Ramsey. His uncle Mark Wilks got a job for him  and he joined EIC as a cadet in Calcutta, India in the summer of 1801. Being efficient and devoted to duty as he was, it is natural, he slowly claimed the ladder of promotions in succession; mostly he held military appointments  in many parts of India. He became a Major in November 1823 and later a Lieutenant-Colonel on 22 April 1826.

ISLE OF MAN Presentation Pack 1985 SIR MARK CUBBON 10% eBay

Upon the death of  Tipu Sultan in 1799, the British had restored the former Hindu royal family of Mysore under Krishna Raja Wodeyar III, then a minor child with (Purnaiah, minister in Tipu's rule) to administer the kingdom. As corruption and the unfair revenue system remained unsolved, this led to a serious uncontrollable uprising in 1831. At last, it was controlled with the help of the British. A commission was formed to go into the root causes of this uprising. Cubbon was one of the members and the report pointed out poor governance. Gov. General William Bentinck decided to put the kingdom under the direct British control with a resident commissioner -.  Cubbon  in June 1834. The Commissioner was literally the ruler of Mysore kingdom. and the responsibility fell on Sir Mark Cubbon to run the state.

 When the  British took over the administration on 19 October 1831,Cubbon's first  priority was law and order. From 1831 to 1881 the British controlled the kingdom. In those days,  across the kingdom disputes were settled with vigilantism that would end in murder of parties in dispute. Cubbon appointed Silladars or native horsemen who would provide services to the government for a fixed monthly charge. He gave them better pay to avoid corruption, etc. Thus he created a huge force of 4000 horses under various regiments in many taluks. Police force  was introduced in   July 1834, to prevent thefts, etc. He employed people to take care of civil services, road repairs, avoid sandalwood cutting,etc. The offenders had to pay  hefty fine. He favoured  a uniform code of law across all classes  in the Kingdom of Mysore. Particularly, he was quite bullish on crimes.

Cubbon introduced strict administration based on codes. There was no  room for corruption in the revenue department  and court officers holding extreme Wahabi tenets. He formed  nine departments or kacheris: revenue (dewan), posts (anche), police (,kandachar), public works (maramat), military (sowar and barr), medical, public cattle (Amrit Mahal)  and judiciary. Cubbon  encouraged the use of  Kannada and Marathi over Urdu or Hindi in the official work to avoid complications.


 When Cubbon was at the helm, Bangalore saw a lot of development, the Raj Bhavan - the nice residence is his creation that was built on the land he personally bought.  Officially called Chamarajendra Park, the Cubbon Park is a famous hangout for the physical exercise-conscious people. Sir Cubbon made vast improvement in developing the infrastructure  of Mysore .This included improvements of roads, communication, etc. Roads were  laid  connecting Bangalore to all major taluks. The first railway line between Bangalore and Jolarpet was laid. Communication improved with the laying of telegraph lines. Commerce flourished During Cubbon's tenure of 26 years, the State’s revenue rose to Rs 93 lakh, indeed a great accomplishment, starting from the scratch.

 Yet another milestone in Cubbon's administration was the  introduction of prompt salaries and pension schemes  to instil confidence in the government and to gain  the loyalties of government servants. Yet another administrative feature was the preparation of  an annual administration report, a unique process that began in 1856-57.

Grave of Mark Cubbon. Sir Mark Cubbon - Muaghold, Isle of ManWaymarking
 Sir Cubbon had a lasting friendship - more than 26 years with the Maharajah of Mysore. His poor health in 1861 abruptly forced him to leave for England. Unfortunately, he died on the way during the voyage at Suez on April 23, 1861. His mortal remains were taken  to  England by his friend Dr Campbell and laid to rest there. A notice that appeared in the Indian Statesman called him the “last of the old school of statesman”. The credit goes to Lord Bowring his successor for  naming of the park which is now known  as Cubbon Park and the statue in front of the present High Court building. Sir Cubbon was an outstanding personality, ever duty-bound till ill-health had struck him. He was one among countless  British officers who loved their job and also had great sympathy for the natives. 


http://www.deccanherald.com/content/133634/he-sure-did-make-mark.htm