|Radhanath Sikdar discovered the height of Everest. Veethi|
|Mt. Everest .Daily Express|
|Survey of India emblem. en.wikiprdia.org|
George Everest, Lampton's successor changed the techniques and the apparatus and took another 20 years, conducting surveys. Only in 1843 the survey team could reach the Himalayas under Andrew Waugh, George's successor.
|Great Theodolite by Jesse Ramsdenuded by lambton en.wikipedia.org|
Everest (4 July 1790 -1 December 1866), a Welsh surveyor and geographer who became assistant to Colonel Lampton in 1816 embarked on the mammoth task of the Trigonometric Survey of the Indian subcontinent, involving various mathematical methods and it took 20 to 25 years for him to complete the survey. The survey had its early beginning in Madras (now Chennai) in 1802 under William Lampton, an army officer. The survey involved several thousand Indians and was named the Great Trigonometrical Survey (GTS) in 1819. He retired from the survey in 1843.
The detailed survey over a stretch of more than 1,600 miles, covered vast mountainous wooded areas and rugged terrains. The employees mainly Indians in thousands, had to work under various unfriendly weather conditions, far away from the human settlements. Countless people lost their lives owing to wild animal attacks, mosquito bites and poisonous snake bites.
|Andrew Scott Waugh (GTS of India) Wikipedia|
|George Everest,The Great Trignometric Survey of India Wikipedia Pinterest|
|The Great Arc: India was Mapped and Everest was Named: John Keay. Amazon.com|
"His greatest contribution to the computation was in working out and applying the allowance to be made for a phenomenon called refraction - the bending of straight lines by the density of the Earth's atmosphere." George Everest further commented on Sikdar: “There are few in India, whether European or native, that can at all compete with him. Even in Europe these mathematical attainments would rank very high .... there are a few of my instruments that he cannot manage; and none of my computations of which he is not thoroughly master. He can not only apply formulae but investigate them."
Sikdar's great contribution was not known to countless Indians and is now part of the Great Arc Exhibition in London's vibrant Brick Lane. The Indian Government-sponsored exhibition celebrates 200 years of the mapping of the Indian subcontinent.
Though the discovery was made as early as 1852, the public announcement got delayed till 1856 because of recheck and final confirmation. Andrew Waugh made a formal announcement four years later, renaming the peak after his mentor and predecessor George Everest despite his protests. As part of the work, the density of the earth, its angle of curvature and heights of innumerable peaks all along the curve had to to be minutely calculated. Extrapolation and calibration of various survey data needed high degree of mathematical skill and Sikdar's work was a stupendous one.
Sikdar, who was 39 when he made his discovery, was one of the survey's unsung heroes.The GST was greatly indebted to him for hid monumental work in solving the jigsaw puzzle with respect to the height of Everest. The son of a Bengali Brahmin, he was born in October 1813 in Jorasanko, Calcutta's old city. He majored in mathematics at the famous Hindoo college, Kolkata and also gained basic knowledge in English. At the Hondoo College Newtonian mathematics and physics were taught by Tytler and Ross and Sikdar was the first Indians to master Newtonian mathematics and physics. He Joined Great Trigonometrical Survey in 1832. He remained a bachelor through out his life and his passion was maths and was good at solving, tricky, knotty odd mathematical calculations. He became the right-hand man of George Everest at Dehra Dun in measuring the Great Arc and wrote the scientific and technical chapters of the Survey Manual. Having spent 20 years in the North, Sikdar was transferred to Calcutta in 1851 as the Chief Computer. Here his additional duties included serving as the Superintendent of the Meteorological department. His few innovations in meteorology became standard procedures for many decades to come. The most significant finding wasa practical formula for conversion of barometric readings taken at different temperatures to 32 degrees Fahrenheit.
Skidar became a recluse in the later years and died on 17 May 1870 at his own villa in Chandan Nagar, then a French colony. Earlier after retirement in 1862, he taught maths at General Assemblies Institution and was awarded corresponding Membership of Bavaria Natural History Society under German Philosophical Society in 1864, a rare honor bestowed on a foreigner. Along with one Peary Chand Mitra, Sikdar edited a women's magazine called Masik Patrika (the monthly magazine) of the Calcutta Art and Craft Society in 1854. He believed in woman's empowerment and spoke against polygamy, child marriage and racial discrimination. He wholeheartedly encouraged widow's remarriage.
|Mauna kea and Mt. Everest. Business Insider|
01. Geologically speaking, Mount Everest, a part of the Himalayan range, is slowly growing inches by inches because of plate tectonic movements between the Indian and Eurasian plates. Slow collusion of these plates pushes the crust all along the Himalayan mountain chain. o, areas near the boundary are pone to tremors due to adjustments made by the moving blocks of rocks.
|Indian plate colliding with the Eurasian plate and make mountains like the Himalaya.www.public.asu.edu|
03. The GST under George Everest was earlier known as the Triangulation Survey started by William Lampton at Madras (Tamil Nadu) to survey the Geomorphology of the southern regions first.
04. He assisted in the publication of many technical surveys. When the third survey manual came out in 1875 there was no acknowledgement of Sikdar's major contribution and it was condemned by many British higher ups whose unanimous opinion was Sikdar was a great mathematician of exceptional ability and deserved better recognition and the survey owed him a lot.
By Soutik Biswas, BBC News Online - Monday, 20 October, 2003, 02:09 GMT 03:09 UK