|Indian independence & partition.www.slideshare.net|
|Statue of Sir Seshadri Aiyar, mpmurthy.wordpress.com|
of Mysore, he was instrumental in developing Bangalore city. The statue in front of the State Central Library (also called Cubbon Library). unveiled by the then Viceroy and Governor General, Lord Charles Baron Hardinge of Penshurst on the November 20, 1913.............
Under the Raj there were two types of territories - British India and the Native states or Princely states as per British Interpretation Act of 1889. The term princely state specifically refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler under a form of indirect rule. However, when there was a succession to the throne was a problem because the legal heir happened to be a minor or the ruler, in alliance was himself inefficient, the British rulers would interfere and appoint an agent or a Dewan. Dewan appointed to the troubled princely states would run the administration till a suitable ruler from the ruling royal family was able to take care of the kingdom on his own.
|Dewan V.P. Madhava Rao. commons.wikimedia.org|
The administrative work of a Dewan in the troubled princely state was a difficult one and his position a complex one. He must be through with knowledge of fields related to his administrative work, quick and proper decision making, friendly relations with the royal family, fair amount of resilience in matters related to people and above all a strong conviction of purpose, foresight and commitment in the execution of his duties.
The following are the hurdles the Dewan had to handle with care:
01. The person must have good sills in public relationship and has the ability to decipher the psychology of people he is dealing with. The foremost thing is he has to initially develop a cordial relationship with his nearest officers attache with his office and be friendly with the other members of the royal families.
02. People of the state will be under the impression the Dewan is vested with all regal power and authority. Hence, he will hog the limelight more than the real ruler.
03. The Maharajah, being a mere head of the state and the Dewan has authority over many matters, the real credit goes to him and for his administration.
04. The ruler has to rely entirely on him and may become jealous or develop animosity, if the Dewan is overbearing.
05. With real intention, if the Dewan implements some useful welfare or civilian projects for the benefit of the state, all credits will go to him, creating a situation where the Maharajah's skill will be subject to criticism.
06. Since the Dewan is appointed by the British Government, he is supposedly their protege on one side, and at the same time, the British will keep an eye on him and if, need be, warn the ruler of certain risks and advise him not to be too close to him and be dependent on him.
07. The Dewan, being the administrative head on behalf of the ruler, has to use his discretionary powers carefully. Because if a big project, devised and executed by him, goes wrong he will be discredited.
08. The Dewan has to be watchful of those close relatives of Maharajah or officers who want to displace the Dewan or succeed him to enjoy powers and all the trappings that go with this powerful position.
09. The Dewan has to take care of those relatives close to the ruler who might expect some monetary benefits from him by way of some favors such as certain contract works, etc.
10. More often than not, the Dewan will be subjected to severe criticism, slanderous remarks, disgusting rumors and even nepotism by some members of the royal families if their requests for concessions in some financial matter are rejected by the Dewan. He may be accused of being autocratic and arbitrary.
The eminent Indians who held the Dewanship on orders from the British Government invariably succeeded in their job. In spite of several obstacles and difficult situations, they got a good name on their own and won the appreciation of the ruler and people of the state and the Paramount Power.
11. So, to take the troubled state forward out of financial mess and leave it with surplus funds, the Dewan needs the full cooperation of the ruler and the senior officers close to him.
Dewan Seshayya Sastri was the builder of modern Pudukotta (Pudukottai), Tamil Nadu. so was Sir Seshadri Aiyar of modern Mysore (Karnataka). Like wise Sir. Salar Jung and Sir. C. P. Ramaswamy Aiyar, as Dewans, introduced lots of reforms in the states of Hyderabad (now par of Telengana) and Travancore (now Kerala state) respectively and ran the administration effectively. These administrators and also others of exceptional ability are the lasting examples for the present and succeeding generations of Indian statesmen upon whose administrative skills and integrity modern India will firmly rely.