Saturday, 14 September 2019

Jod Gumbaz that has traitors' tombs!! - Bijapur, Karnataka

Jod Gumbaz, Bijapur, flicker.com
Among the Islamic monuments of Bijapur, Jod Gumbaz, is a unique  one. Believe it or not, it is dedicated to neither a ruler nor a great warrior, rather, the twin tombs  here were dedicated to “Traitors”. Is it nor strange honoring traitors of a country? Close to the Mecca Gate, Jod Gumbaz has two  tombs built in 1687 in memory of father son duo - Khan Muhammad and Abdul Razzaq Qadiri. Why are they tagged as traitors?  
Jod Gumbaz, Bijapur. tripadvisor
The above image:  The octagonal one is the Tomb of Khan Muhammad and of his son Khawas Khan, Wazir to  ruler Sikander Shah.  Khan Muhammad was executed  for his treachery. The tomb has a high dome which springs from a foliated band of ornament. The plain square tomb is the Mausoleum of Abdul Razzak..............................................
If you take the history of any country across the globe, rulers never have failed to plant spies in their enemies' land to gain knowledge about their military strength, weakness, political situation, etc. Based on the inputs, they strengthen their military and improve their arms and ammunition. These spies in a foreign land depend on the traitors who are ready to betray their country for a big reward. The other reason is if the traitors  who once had a close rapport with the rulers and who faced humiliation or failed to get better position in the administration for some reason, will normally resort to revenge by way of betraying the rulers to settle their score. Such vigilantism in a political scenario will spell doom for a country.  In the past in the 18th century, the composite Bengal fell into the hands of the wily British East India company officials headed by Robert Clive because of betrayal by Mir Jaffer, a close relative of the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-daulah who was later murdered by his own relatives at the instigation of Robert Clive and his co- employee William Watts. It changed the history of India and the world, paving the path for the growth of British imperialism. Such betrayal did occur in the past and and it does happen now.  

Jod Gumbaz, Bijapur/mapio.net/pic
This father-son duo had helped Mogul ruler of Delhi Aurangzeb defeat the young Sikandar Adil Shah.  It was in 1685, Aurangzeb  sent  his son, Muhammad Azam Shah, with a force of nearly 50,000 men to capture Bijapur Fort and defeat Sikandar Adil Shah (the ruler of Bijapur).  Sikandar  refused to be a vassal and was ready to face any eventuality. Sikandar  was on the throne of Bijapur in 1672 when he was just a kid -  four years of age. Therefore, his reign (1672–1686)  was marked by  chaos - chronic civil war among factious, nobles, regents and ministers whose aim was power and pelf.
Tombs Jod Gumbaz, Bijapur  mapio.net/pic
Jod Bumbaz tombs. mapio.net/pic
Jod Gumbaz, entrance to Abdul Razzak's tomb, Bijapur. mapio.net/pic
 Sikandar  also had a well-trained army with powerful cannons.  The Moguls' offensive force was not good enough and  they could not make any further  advancements upon Bijapur Fort which was well-guarded.  The reason being they had better fire power, far superior cannons that could cover long distances.  Outraged by the stalemate, Aurangzeb himself arrived on 4 September 1686 and commanded the Siege of Bijapur; after eight days of fighting, the Moguls emerged  victorious. Sikandar was unable to halt the Mogul assault led by Aurangzeb. On 12 September 1686, Bijapur was occupied, its garrison surrendered and Bijapur Fort was annexed by the Mogul Empire. 
Sikandar Adil Shah of Bijapur, wikipedia. 
 Above image: A painting of "The House of Bijapur" was completed in the year 1680, during the reign of Sikandar Adil Shah the last ruler of the Adil Shahi dynasty. 

After defeat, Sikandar Adil Shah was captured,  bound in silver chains and brought before the Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb, to whom he bowed three times. Aurangzeb then sent him and his followers to Daulatabad fort, where he died during captivity.  Sikandar Adil Shah was  buried at foot side of his spiritual teacher Naimullah Hashmi in the open yard in the New Market Place of Bijapur. The Adil Shahi dynasty thus came to an end............................................
Jod Gumbaz, Bijapur  indiamart.com/
Mogul ruler Aurangzeb, the most trecherous ruler. muslimworldjournal.com

During the tumultuous time, instead of being loyal to the Sultanate of Bijapur, Khan Muhammad and Abdul Razzaq Qadiri  indulged in acts of treason and passed on certain military secrets to the Moguls. 
Also known  as Abdul Razzaq Dargah, the structure has two domes and beautifully carved chambers. Jod Gumbaz is in the midst of a garden which has now become a picnic spot. The tombs are on a higher elevation since the graves are built at the floor level with galleries within the domes. It is surprising that the tombs were built on the advice of Afzal khan, the army chief who later was killed in the war against Marathas. The traitors mortal remains are buried here.  Jod Gumbaz is just one km away from Afzal khan’ cenotaph.

Often referred to as the twin domes of the tombs of Khan Muhammad and Abdul Razzaq Qadiri, they also go by the name of  'Two Sisters’.
 http://www.dsource.in/resource/monuments-bijapur/jod-gumbaz
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurangzeb#Expansion_of_the_Mughal_Empire