Tuesday, 6 August 2019

Delhi's impressive monument - the Mausoleum of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq

Tomb of of Ghiyath al-Din, Delhi alamy.com
Mausoleum of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq   merwynsrucksack.blogspot.com
The architectural style of the tomb of Tughlaq is close to that of   the Khalji portal- Alai Darwaza- in the Qutb Minar complex. This is hardly surprising as Ghiyas was originally a Khalji slave who later became one of the governors and later a ruler. Unlike other Islamic architecture, the Tughlag tombs  (1320 -1413), though built in  an Indo-Islamic style look monotonous and lack subtleties. They look like big fortresses with thick wall around them and have limited embellishments and ornate features. Unlike Mogul and Lodi structures that show positive influence of Hindu temple architecture, Tughlag buildings have just basic elements of Hindu design style - eaves, balconies, railings, etc. 
 Mausoleum of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq,Delhi. menonsid.wordpress.com

tomb of Ghiyath ud-Din Tughluq findmessages.com

The Tughlaqabad Fort, near Delhi has the mausoleum of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, the founder of Tughlaq dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate of India in 1321, as he established the fourth historic city of Delhi, which was later abandoned in 1327. His son Mohd.-Bin-Tughlaq moved the capital back to Delhi and the fort along with the mausoleum received little attention.
Zahar Khan tomb,Mausoleum of Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq  gounesco.com
Connected to the southern outpost of the fortification by an elevated  causeway which is 600 ft in length, supported by 27 arches, across a former artificial lake. This continuous causeway was  interrupted in 20th century portion to facilitate the Mehrauli-Badarpur road.  Close to  an old Pipal tree, the mausoleum  complex  of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq's tomb is  is accessed through a high nicely built  elevated red stone gateway with a  flight of steps.
Tomb of of Ghiyath al-Din, Delhi. alamy.com

Entrance, Tomb of Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluqen.wikipedia.org


The mausoleum made up of a single-domed square tomb (about 8 m x8 m) with sloping walls crowned by parapets is in contrast to the walls of the fortification in terms of construction, the latter made of sturdy granite stones. The sides of the mausoleum are made with smooth red sandstone and inlaid with inscribed panels and arch borders in  marble. Atop the structure is an elegant dome resting on an octagonal drum that is covered with white slabs of marble and slate.
Tughra from a scroll issued by Muhammad ibn Tughluq at Delhien.wikipedia.org

Tughlaqs built three main types of tombs: square, octagonal and pavilion. The last type being the simplest, consisting of a pavilion or a chhatri and it is meant for other royal and noble family members related to them. Quite interesting feature about the tomb is the sloping walls, at a 75 degree angle with the ground instead of vertical walls. This is on the model of  the sloping walls of the Hindola Mahal (Swing palace) in Mandu, Madhya Pradesh. Inside the wallas are plain and flat. The advantage is besides arches, the sloping walls give better support to the ceiling. The tomb  has a kalassa (pinnacle) on top of the white marble dome and it shows the peculiar Hindu influences. 


Lots of people who visit the fort never fail to step into this fort as it is mentioned earlier, it stands apart in the fort area with red-colored stone face on all the sides.  


The mausoleum  has three graves: The main one - central part  is that of  ruler Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq and the other two being, it is believed, to be those of his wife Makhdum-i-Jahanand his son  and successor to the throne Muhammad bin Tughluq.  Besides, there is  another octagonal tomb in similar fashion  with a smaller marble dome and inscribed marble and sandstone slabs over its arched doors.  It is in the  north-western bastion of the enclosure wall with  corridors supported by pillars. We understand from the inscription over its southern entrance  that this tomb is that of  Zafar Khan (Makhdum-i-Jahan ?). His grave, it is said,  consciously included as part of the mausoleum by Ghiyath al-Din himself. Details are not clear with respect to  his family and his links with the Tughlag Dynasty. 

Tit-bits:
Ghaiasuddin Tughluq Share Your Essays

Above image: Ghiyath ud-Din Tughluq or Ghazi Malik (Ghazi means 'fighter for Islam'; he died c.1325) was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty in India,  His reign over the Sultanate of Delhi was from 1320 to 1325.  After founding the fortified city  of Tughluqabad, close to Delhi he died under under mysterious circumstances in  Feb. 1325.  At Afghhanpur on his return from Bengal, the wooden pavilion used for his reception collapsed, killing him and his second son Prince Mahmud Khan. Ibn Battuta, contemporary Moroccan traveller,  claimed it was a conspiracy, hatched by his vizier, Jauna Khan (Khwajah Jahan). Ibn Battuta is of the view that Tughluq belonged to the "Qarauna tribe of the Turks", who lived in the hilly region between Turkestan and Sindh; but this claim not corroborated by any other contemporary source. Firishta, based on the enquiries made at Lahore, wrote that Tughluq was a Turkish slave of the earlier emperor Balban, and that his mother came from a Jat family of India. Again there is no record to  accept this claim. In 1323, Ghiyath al-Din sent his son Ulugh Khan (later Muhammad bin Tughluq) on an expedition to the Kakatiya capital Warangal. The ensuing Siege of Warangal resulted in the annexation of Warangal, and the end of the Kakatiya dynasty and the most important loot was Koh-i-Noor diamond which is now in the British Museum. He was succeeded by Muhammad bin Tughluq. 
http://navrangindia.blogspot.com/2017/07/the-humble-tomb-of-ghiyasuddin-tughlaq.html
https://www.mapsofindia.com/my-india/travel/the-mystical-tomb-of-ghiyasuddin-tughlaq-in-delhi
https://www.indianetzone.com/52/tomb_ghiasud_din_tughlaq.htm