Monday, 16 July 2018

Khudiram Bose,18 year old patriot was hanged to death 110 years ago - British India

Patriot KhudiramBose  too uoung to die at the gallows Making India
Prafulla Chandra  Chakiphila-art.com
Come August, 110 years ago, a young boy and a Bengali patriot Khudiram Bose, in his teens, was hanged to death for killing two British women in  Muzaffarpur, Bihar.  In many Indian states he remains relatively unknown in spite of being one the youngest revolutionaries of the Indian freedom struggle to die at18.
During the struggle for India's freedom, the attitude of the British administration directly under the Crown had not changed after the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 and the racial discrimination in jobs, exploitation of Indian lands, dumping of British products and destruction of cottage industries  continued in a subtle manner. Though a large section of people wanted to be free democratically, a small section felt the British were hard nut to crack and the only recourse was to instill fear in them by killing British officials to hasten the process of getting freedom. Besides, they thought, such assassinations would get world-wide publicity,  show the British in bad light and  bring into focus how much the Indian natives hated the British rule . Among the Indian states, Bengal became a breeding ground for innumerable freedom fighters and some of them became revolutionaries and encourage violence against the foreign rulers. Unfortunately their love for the country, sacrifices to free the country  go unnoticed. This is true of Khudiram Bose, a young student of Midnapore Collegiate School.  Bose was heavily influenced and inspired by freedom fighters like Aurobindo Ghosh who later became a spiritual leader.

The Indian Panorama
Khudiram Bose (3 December 1889 – 11 August 1908) was an Indian Bengali revolutionary and was against the British oppressive rule. He could not reconcile himself to the fact that Indians were discriminated against by the British who exploited the Indian resources and the gullible Indians. Having become a revolutionary, he took to violence as the only way to make the British understand how much abomination the Indians  had for their unjust rule in India.
Patriot Khudiram Quora
Khudiram, along with his associate Prafulla tried to assassinate District Judge, Mr. Kingsford  by throwing bombs which blew up the carriage in which Kingsford was supposed to be in, but he was not. Two British ladies were killed in the incident. When the police closed in on Prafulla,  he committed suicide  to avoid torture and pain. Khudiram was arrested and tried for the murder of the two ladies and sentenced to death. When facing death, Kudiram was just 18 years, 8 months 8 days old, making him one of the youngest revolutionaries in India 
The Quint

Mahatma Gandhi who said, '' that the Indian People will not win their freedom through these methods" did not appeal for the reduction of punishment for the young man. Instead, he felt sorry for the death of two innocent British women. A section of the Indian population was 'aghast at Gandhiji's attitude as he had not even an iota of sympathy for a young boy in his teens who gave up his life for this country'.

Born on December 3, 1889 in the small village named "Habibpur" in Midnapore district of Bengal, Kudiram Bose  lost his parents at a young age and was brought up by his sister Aparupa Roy. He attended the school  and college at Medinapore where in 1902-1903 Sri Aurobindo and Sister Nivedita respectively organized public lectures, besides conducting secret meeting with revolutionary groups. Khudiram, being patriotic attended these secret sessions that gave him inspiration to join the revolutionary group. Having  joined Anushilan Samiti, he got in contact with people inspired by Barindra Kumar Ghosh of Calcutta. At the age of 15 he became a volunteer and distributed pamphlets against the British rule and this landed him in jail.  
Patriot Khudiram Bose. Towards Freedom
Hem Chandra Kanungo (Hem Chandra Kanungo Das), an associate of  Barindra Kumar Ghosh in 1907 learned the art of bomb making  in French. Back in India, he worked with Barin Ghosh again. Now, they chose a target one Douglas Kingsford who was the Chief Magistrate of the Presidency court of Alipore, and had handled the trials of Bhupendranath Dutta and other editors of Jugantar, sentencing them to rigorous imprisonment.  The court cases popularized the Anushilan Samiti's ideology of revolutionary nationalism that approved terrorism as a way to achieve the goal. It was popular among a small section of the people. 

 Kingsford, arrogant as he was,  also earned the ire of nationalists when he ordered the whipping of a young Bengali boy for participating in the protests that followed the Jugantar trial. As Chief Magistrate of Calcutta Presidency, Kingsford had passed several verdicts giving severe punishments  to  young political workers and at one stage, he became a maniac, bent on giving harsh sentences even for light crimes.
abortive attempt on Kingford surajyadavopinion.blogspot.com
Hem  made a futile bid  to  assassinate Kingford with a book bomb at a time when he was transferred to Muzaffarpur in 1908 in northern part of Bihar on promotion as District Judge. Resolved to assassinate Kingford, Anushilan Samiti  after initial survey of the town - Muzaffarpur in April sent  Prafulla Chaki and  Khudiram Bose with  explosives (6 ounces of dynamite) and other materials to be used to kill Kingford.

The  Calcutta police got  the scent that there was a plan afoot to finish notorious judge  Kingsford and  alerted the Muzaffarpur police officials. Kingsford was warned about the impending danger to his life, but he never paid any attention to it. However, his security was beefed up at his residence and other places. 

On the trail of Kingford, Khudiram changed his name to "Haren Sarkar", and Prafulla to "Dinesh Chandra Roy", and they checked into a  residence in a 'dharmashala' (free, charitable inn).  For the next few days both of them  keenly watched the daily routine  activities of Kingford and his security, taking notes of target's timings at the court, the club and his house. They decided to carry on their plan  on the evening of 29 April and the place was near the British Club, Kingford'd favorite recreation place. The park across the club gave Khudiram and Prafulla  a good view of the club As the police were close by, they changed the plan..
For three weeks, the duo went under the different names and moved around the town without raising suspicion. Following day in the evening - 30 April 1908 they came to the same spot and the presence of police alerted them and they hid behind a tree.  Kingsford was busy  playing bridge that night at the club with his wife and the wife and daughter of Pringle Kennedy, a leading pleader of Muzaffarpur Bar. Around 8.30 Pm, they finisedh the game and ready to go home. 

Kingsford and his wife were in a carriage right  behind the one carrying Pringles. The crux of the problem was both  horse- drawn carriages were identical in appearance and  Khudiram and Prafulla had no idea which carriage was carrying Kingford, Further, it was almost dark.  As the ladies carriage was just near Kingford's  compound  to go past it, two men ran towards it from the opposite or southern side of the road where they had been hiding under the trees.  One of them or both (?) lobbed a bomb into the carriage. After the explosion, the carriage was shattered and the English ladies were severely injured and later both of them succumbed to horrible injuries. As for Kingford, it was the edit of providence that he had to stay alive.

As this incident took place before 9 PM, the entire town was cordoned off by the police who were on the look out of the culprits. They were carrying a bounty of Rs.1000.00 on them. Kadiram, after his execution attempt, chose the country side and walked  a long distance non-stop around 25 miles  and was finally caught at a place called "Waini" (Now known as Khudiram Bose Pusa Station or Pusa Road Station) by the cops after some struggle.
As for Prafulla Chaki, he walked long distance and a resident, knowing well he was the assassin the police were looking for, took pity on him helped him get back to Calcutta. Unfortunately luck ran out quickly on him.  At Mokamagha where he had to take a train to Calcutta, a police inspector saw him and altered the near by police station. When a posse arrived, after unsuccessful firing at the Indian sub Inspector, Prafulla tried to escape from the railway station. Finally exhausted, to avoid mental agony and torture, he shot himself to death.
Patriot KhudiramBose  compute.info
On 1 May, the handcuffed Khudiram was brought from that station to Muzaffarpur.  Kudiram took the entire responsibility for the murder and did not want to betray his associate who was already dead which he did not know. After a long trial and appeals to higher courts to reduce the sentence, finally on 11 August 1908 at 6 am young and daring freedom fighter was hanged to death. He never appeared disturbed nor had he  shown fear when he was taken to the gallows and the cap drawn over his head. Khudiram Bose was just 18 years of age  he was sentenced to death. The entire Bengal mourned his death and it gave a boost to India's freedom struggle. As for the British, they  again opened the Pandora's box, this time in Bengal.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khudiram_Bose
https://www.quora.com/Do-We-Remember-Khudiram-Bose-Youngest-Martyr-of-India