|The Battle of Plassey was fought in . 1757topgkquestions.blogspot.com|
|Robert Clive. en.wikipedia.org|
The English company's dirty and iniquitous methods were viewed with distrust and suspicion in England and Robert Clive's behind the scene role became a bone of contention and widely discussed in the Parliament. Robert Clive on 07 January, 1759 from Calcutta wrote to William Pitt, ........" there will be little or no difficulty in obtaining the absolute possession of these rich kingdoms: ... Now I leave you to judge, whether an income yearly of two million sterling with the possession of three provinces ... be an object deserving the public attention ......'' . At last the British government gave the green signal to the capture of more lands for the British Crown. Subsequently the British Crown ran a proxy government through the English company.
The EIC moved over to Bengal to engage in trade activities after getting permission from then Mogul ruler Aurangzeb and got a special privilege Firman - exemption from trade taxes . In 1650s in the subcontinent there were other competitors in trade. The Dutch and the French were very much there. Fearing raids from the French, the English began fortification of their trading post in Bengal. The then representative of the Mogul ruler Shaista Khan objected to it and was not cooperative and troublesome. After several years of skirmishes and misunderstanding. Job Charnock, chief officer, EIC made a peace treaty with the new representative Ibrahim Khan. He moved the trading post down the Hoogley river about 24 km from the present location. At a swampy village Sutanuti on 24 August 1690 and hoisted the Royal Standards of England on the banks of river Hooghly, and EIC's new trading post began functioning from another location. Later harnock also added a couple of villages to the British possession.
It was in the new location Ft. William (the old fort was built in 1701. A new fort (the present one) came up after Siraj ud-Daulah had attacked Fort William in 1756. The five day siege was a long one and the infamous black hole incident took place during that time in which 43 people died mainly due to asphyxiation. The EIC, which never paid the customs duty for years, invoking Firman and flouted the authority of the Nawab, took advantage of this tragedy and showed the Nawab in bad light to the British public. The siege of Ft. William was a bad news for the proud English. When news of the fall of Calcutta broke in Madras on 16 August 1756, additional British forces comprising roughly 2500 soldiers from Madras led by Col. Robert Clive, aged 32 and Admiral Charles Watson arrived in Calcutta and finally recaptured the Trading port and the town from the local ruler. Siraj renamed Calcutta as Alinagar. Robert Clive's entry in Bengal made all the differences and set an initial start for the rise of British power in this region. He decided to replace the recalcitrant Nawab with a new one who would be cooperative to the company. The treaty of Alingar Feb 1757 between Clive and Siraj allowed restoration of factories, etc and acceptance of Firman of 1717 signed by Faurruk Siyar, Mogul ruler.
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|Nawab of Bengal Siraj ud-Daulah en.wikipedia.org|
|Battle of plassey. SlideShare|