|Sir Dietrich Brandis,/en.wikipedia.org|
|Dalbergia sissoo Forest Flora of NW and Central India"en.wikipedia.org|
|forest-resources India. Day Today GK|
he was with the British Imperial Forestry Service in colonial India for nearly 30 long years and made a valuable contribution to Indian forestry. He later served as Inspector General of Forests in India from 1864 to 1883. Even after retirement and his return to Europe in 1883, he divided his time between Bonn and Greater London and devoted much of his time to scholarly work, resulting in his monumental book Indian Trees (1906). Besides his work in India, he had made a mark on forestry management of the United States.
Born in Bonn, Germany, his father Christian August Brandis was a well-known philosopher and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Bonn. His grandfather Joachim Dietrich Brandis happened to be personal physician to Queen Marie of Denmark and Norway and a member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters. Educated at the universities of Copenhagen, Göttingen, Nancy and Bonn. As early as in 1849 he developed keen interest in forest management, a rare field not well researched before. He started out as a lecturer in Botany at Bonn.
|British Colonial India .SlideShare|
During the early colonial period, the administrators realized the potential in unexplored Indian forests and at that time the felling of tree was not regulated, leading to the loss of forest in mid 1850s. Based on the report by a committee formed by the British Association in Edinburgh to study forest destruction, Lord Dalhousie, the Governor-General of India in a memorandum (1855) stressed the need for effective management of India's forests. Brandis in 1858 became head of the imperial forest administration of all of British Burma soon after joining the British civil service in 1856, He, in a smart move, reduced the militancy of Karen tribal community in Burma by introducing the "taungya" system. The villagers were given the job of clearing, planting and weeding teak plantations and in return they were allowed to plant crops for the first few years between the trees. As the teak trees grew big enough, the villagers were moved over to a new land. This way they could cover more lands without affecting the livilihood of the tribal, hill community.Consequently the tribes were dependent on the state forestry and local resistance to forest take over by the British slowly declined.
Circumstances forced Brandis to undertake the botanical study of the forest trees, plants, etc. He did a major study on the teak wood plantation - total production, growth rate, pest- fire control, timber purchase, clearing rules, conservation, etc. From 1864 for 20 years, he was the Inspector General of Forests in India, and during this period he introduced new forest legislation and helped establish research and training institutions. Brandis was the founder of The Imperial Forest School at Dehradun. it is the most popular forest institution in India now. He became a Knight Commander in 1887.
|Brandis founded Forest Research Institute (FRI) Dehradun..trawell.in/|
After retirement, he spent much of his time on his monumental work on Indian trees (1906). From 1888 to 1896) he supervised training of forestry students at the Royal Indian Engineering College in England. Besides, he was also involved in forestry education in England at Coopers' Hill. He took keen interest in matters related to American forest and for which he received a personal letter of thanks by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904. Brandis' professional advice on management of forests was given serious consideration in the US and had a good impact on the
introduction of professional forest management and on how to structure the Forest Service (founded in 1905).
After his retirement in 1883, he came back to England and from 1900 until 1906, he lived permanently in Kew in Greater London. Upon his return to Bonn in late 1906, he was hospitalized and died few months later.