With the arrival of the English and their enterprise East India company, western education was introduced in India after they had finally consolidated their hold on the land and the people. We also had an advantage of western education. Our old culture and heritage got the attention of the Europeans through English scholars. The world came to know about the richness of various Indian languages, in particular Sanskrit and also other fields.
India boasts of some of the oldest colleges and universities built during the colonial period. Below listed are some of the old, historical institutions built in the 1800s and a brief account about them. The credit goes to numerous Christian missionaries who emphasized the value of western education in India in the midst of their missionary work. Indians, at last, accepted the western approach to education without compromising on India's age-old tradition, culture and heritage.
University of Mumbai:
|University of Mumbai, Mumbai. estd. 1857. www.collegesearch.in|
The University of Mumbai established in 1857 was modeled on the universities in Great Britain, particularly University of London. This was in response to a petition from the Bombay Association to the then British government of India drafted by Sir Charles Wood in 1854. Elphinstone College, founded in 1835 was part of the university, so were the departments and the faculty of art. In 1845 the faculty of medicine at Grant Medical College came up and in 1862, medical degrees were awarded. Because of space, the Town Hall was used as a make-shift university offices for a long time. PG courses were introduced in 1904. After India's independence, Bombay University Act of 1953 was passed. It became
University of Mumbai as per a gazette of the Government of Maharashtra dated 4 September 1996. In 1949, student enrollment was 42,272 with 80 affiliated colleges.
|Madras University, Chennai.es.dreamstime.com|
|The University of Madras is a public state university in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Established in 1857. Logo. www.google.co.in|
Based on a public petition, signed by 70,000 residents presented by the Advocate General Mr. George Norton on 11 November 1839, pressing the need for an English college in the city of Madras, in the follow up Lord Elphinstone had a plan to have a central collegiate institution or a ‘university.’ built with two departments - a high school for the cultivation of English literature, regional language, philosophy and science, and a college for instruction in the higher branches of literature, philosophy and science.
With Mr. George Norton as its President in 1840 the University Board was established and this was the precursor of the present Presidency College, Chennai. Based on Wood's dispatch for "creating a properly articulated system of education from the primary school to the University", the University of Madras came into being on the model of the University of London. It was incorporated on 5 September 1857 by an Act of the Legislative Council of India.
Aligarh Muslim University
|Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), en.wikipedia.org|
Established as Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind in 1875, it began functioning on 24 May 1875. Syed Ahmad Khan, an Anglo–Indian statesman started, the Muhammadan Anglo Oriental College after having already established two schools. It was the precursor to AMU. The movement of Muslim awakening associated with Syed Ahmad Khan encouraged Indian Muslims to learn western education and emphasized the importance of competence in English and "Western sciences" and necessary skills. Hence his M.A.O. College was dubbed as Aligarh Movement. Syed Ahmad Khan,'s visit to Oxford and Cambridge changed his perspective on Muslim education which ought be kept abreast of present advances in sciences and technology.
|Victoria Gate, a prominent building at the university en.wikipedia.org|
|Aligarh Muslim University logo, India. en.wikipedia.org|
HH Sir Mohammad Ali Mohammad Khan and the Aga Khan III. The Aligarh Muslim University Act of 1920 made it a central university. In October 1906 a Girls' school came up and later in 1920-1930 a college for women started functioning. A school for the blind was started in 1927 followed by a Medical school in 1928. Now, Aligarh Muslim University is a fully residential university and one of the best in India.
University of Calcutta:
|the University of Calcutta www.telegraphindia.com|
|Seal of the University of Calcutta. en.wikipedia.org|
|Calcutta university 1870.jen.wikipedia.org|
|Estd 1887. The University of Allahabad, Allahabad, www.desispy.com|
|Estd 1887. The University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India. www.alamy.com|
|The University of Allahabad seal, India en.wikipedia.org|
It, in the beginning, functioned under the University of Calcutta and later on 23 September 1887, the University of Allahabad was established, making it the fourth university established in India. It was an affiliating and examining body for graduate and postgraduate degrees with emphasis on classical orientation and the responsibility for secondary education as well. In 1904, the university introduced its own teaching departments and also doctoral research programs. The Lieutenant-Governor, Sir John Hewett, in 1912 opened the University Senate Hall. With the promulgation of the 'Allahabad University Act of 1921', the Muir Central College merged with the university, and became part of the university. In the following few years, its affiliated colleges were transferred to Agra University and the responsibility of conducting secondary-level examinations was relocated elsewhere.
|The University of Allahabad www.university.youth4work.com|
Indian Institute of technology (IITR), Roorkee was formerly the University of Roorkee (1948–2001) and the Thomason College of Civil Engineering (1853–1948). It is a well-known public university located in Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India. It was first established in 1847 in British India by the then lieutenant governor, Sir James Thomason, and was given university status in 1949 after independence. It became Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in 2001, a prestigious institution in India. Most of the graduates from IIT campuses across India go abroad for higher studies and shine very well in their respective fields.
The Thomason College of Engineering was founded in 1845 with a view to training young engineers for the construction of the major Ganges Canal project. The historical Canal Engineer's Bungalow still lies on the campus.
|first estd, 1847.earlier Thomason college of civil engg. IIT University of Roorkee,Uttarakhand . www.topogroup.com|
Yet another credit to this college was between 1934 and 1943, officers of the Indian Army Corps of Engineers had their training at the Thomason College of Engineering and, even after the establishment of the School of Military Engineering (SME) at Roorkee in 1943 they continued to receive technical training at Thomason. Jawahar Lal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, presented the Charter in November 1949, elevating the erstwhile college to the first engineering university of independent India.
University of Roorkee (IITR) along with Bengal Engineering College, Shibpur (IIEST) gave the needed impetus for the development of IIT system in the country.