|Thanjavur paintings Thanjavur Maratha rulers - 17th -19th C.www.thehindu.com|
Tipu Sultan (1750 – 1799) was born on 20 November 1750 at Devanahalli, about 33 km (21 mi) north of Bangalore city, now in Karnataka. He was named "Tipu Sultan" after the saint Tipu Mastan Aulia of Arcot. Tipu was also called "Fath Ali" after his grandfather Fatah Muhammad. He was a sworn enemy of the British rulers.
|Tipu Sultan of Mysore.en.wikipedia.org|
|Map of Maratha kingdom of Tanjore(Thanjavur) maratha-history.blogspot.com|
The war expedition to Tanjore Marata kingdom in 1773 is also remembered for alleged excesses committed by Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. During the period of occupation which lasted six months, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan are believed to have impoverished the country, destroying standing crops, stored food grains and cattle. As late as 1785, the Dutch missionary and a friend of the Maratha rulers, Christian Friedrich Schwarz (1726–1798) described Tipu's alleged abduction of 12,000 children from the region. It was suspected that he had a plan to take them back to his kingdom for religious conversion. The throne was restored to the Maratha rulers by the Directors of the British East India Company and thrrough the intervension of Fr. Schwartz. But this restoration came at a heavy price as it deprived the Maratha ruler of his independence. The economic output of Tanjore, a fertile delta area is estimated to have fallen by 90% between 1780 and 1782. In the wake of the ravages by Hyder and Tipu, there was yet another alleged plunder launched by the local Kallar community that aggravated the situation. The resultant economic devastation by these unprovoked attacks was so severe that the small Tanjore kingdom's economy did not show any semblance of recovery until the start of the 19th century; this period of economic devastation caused by the rulers of Mysore is often referred to, in local Tamil folklore, as the Hyderalikalam.