Thursday, 26 February 2015

The historical Florentine yellow (Amarillo) diamond of Indian origin that changed several hands

The Florentine Diamond of Indian

The Florentine
 The Florentine Diamond stone, also known as the  the Tuscany Diamond, the Grand Duke of Tuscany,  and the Austrian Yellow Diamond, is a137.27 carat (27.454 g) stone, Light yellow in color (Amarillo) with a tinge of green. This nine sided 126-facet double rose cut is of Indian origin(1610), most probably mined near Golconda, near the present day Hyderabad city, Andhra.

Its origin is obscure. This wonderful diamond was in possession by  a myriad of people through centuries from its origin in India and it is difficult to mention every one of them.

 The first European owner of this diamond was believed to be Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (1433 – 1477) who lost it when he fell  at the battle of Morat against the Swiss in 1477. After that it changed  a few hands down the line to  Pope Julius II (1443 – February 1513) and the Medici family in 16th century at Florence. Maria Theresa of Austria acquired it through her marriage (1736) to the Duke of Tuscany and it became part of Austrian Crown jewels. After the fall of Austria before the World War II, the Germans captured the stone.
The U.S. 3rd Army recovered it and returned to the Viennese by Gen. Mark Clark

The other more acceptable and viable story is during the  reign of Vijayanagar rule in S.India, the  Portuguese troops led by the Governor of Goa, Ludovico Castro, Count of Montesanto, defeated the king and acquired the uncut diamond. Later Jusuites of Rome kept the stone from them. Through long negotiations Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany succeeded in buying it from the Castro-Noronha family for 35,000 Portuguese scudi crocati. The Duke's son Cosimo II, had the diamond cut by a Venetian cutter of Florence.

The French jeweler and traveler, Jean Baptiste Ta-vernier recorded the possession of this stone by Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1657. After the death of the last of the Medicis  it became part of the Hapsburg Crown Jewels in the Homburg in Vienna.After the fall of Austrian empire in World War I, the stone, it is believed, was stolen from exiled Charles -1918. In 1920 this valuable diamond reached the US where it was re cut and sold.

Nadir Shah, the ruler of Afsharid Persia in 1739  Muhammad Shah,

Nadir Shah, the ruler of Afsharid Persia in 1739  Muhammad Shah,