Friday, 30 January 2015

Toppling of Indian kingdoms and making sucker out of Indian rulers - the British way -


Colonial India. Asian History - About.com
British press' criticism of the East India company:  The widespread abuse of the ''Doctrine of Lapse'' introduced by the British East India company under the auspices of the British Crown at one stage reached its summit. The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy skillfully  devised by Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor General for the East India Company in India between 1848 and 1856. For the British, this doctrine was more a boon than a bonanza. Using it as an excuse in 1831, the British government  now deposed the Maharajah of Mysore Mummadi  Krishnaraja Woodyar  and assumed the direct administration of Mysore and the rule, under their supervision, lasted for 50  long years.
Maharajh of Mysore. Nalwadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar.www.vanamalaarts.org

Nawab Asaf-Ud-Dowlah of Awadh, India,en.wikimedia.org
Kingdom of Awadh, India.en.wikipedia.org
During this period the  the East India company faced a barrage of criticisms from both the British public and press and it was clear the British Sahibs were overstepping on the legitimate  rights of the Maharajahs  and their legal heirs. At last, unable to face further criticism, on recommendation from the British crown 'rendition' took place in 1881; Chamrajendra Woodiyar was installed as the Maharaja of Mysore the same year. 

Kingdom of mysore1784 AD. en.wikipedia.org
John Morley, Editor of the 'Fortnightly Review' and later a prominent member of the British Cabinet was highly critical of the policy of the British government with respect to the Indian subcontinent, resulting in  despising of England in Europe and the hatred of England in Asia. He said, ''We have abandoned  our legitimate influence in the west in order to annex in the East. We are making ourselves despised in one Continent in order to make ourselves hated in another Continent.''
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The following are some of the princely states taken away by the British under the Doctrine of Lapse:
Arcot (1855), Jhansi (1854), Kannanur (1819), Kozhikode (1806), Kurnool (1839), Nagpur (1854, Pañjab (1849),  Sambalpur (1849), Satara (1848), Surat(1842), Tanjore (1855), etc. The British East India company captured the various kingdom under the above policy just because of the fact the rulers did not have a legal heir, The tricky doctrine of lapse did not recognize an adopted son or daughter as legal and legitimate successor to the throne after ruler's death. It Had been a tradition among the childless Hindu parents to adopt a male or female kid as a legal successor and the law recognized it.The British, who were on a land grabbing spree, purposely excluded recognition of legal adoption as a clause in the new policy. As a result, many Rajahs lost their kingdom and the crown for no reason and there was no justification on the part of the British rulers to take away the land  and the royal privileges they had been enjoying for centuries. The belligerent kings  could not succeed and made a vain attempt to fight the mighty British to get back their kingdoms. 

Fall of the kingdom of Awadh:  


Awadh (now constituting part of Uttar Pradesh) was one of the richest and last territories to be annexed. In 1801, a ''Subsidiary Alliance'' (introduced by  Lord Wellesley, British Governor-General in India from 1798 to 1805) was imposed on Awadh, and in 1856 the kingdom  was taken over. Reason: Governor-General Dalhousie declared that the territory was being  misgoverned and there was no semblance of proper and orderly governance and British rule was needed to ensure proper and effective administration.

The Company officials, cunning as they were, even began to  hatch plans as to how to bring the Mogul dynasty down to the ground for good. They started off with the removal of  the  Mogul king's name  from the coins  being minted by the Company. In 1849  Governor-General Dalhousie announced that after the death of  Bahadur  Shah  Zafar, the family of the king would be shifted out of the Red Fort and given another place in Delhi to reside in. In 1856, Governor-General Canning decided that Bahadur Shah Zafar would be the last Mughal king and after his death none of his descendants would be recognized as kings – they would just be called princes and their decision was final and irrevocable. Now the coast was clear for the unscrupulous and obnoxious British to take over the vast  Indian subcontinent completely.

''Shakespeare's most diabolical, disgusting and nauseating  character 'Iago' (of Othello) is just a pygmy before these Goliaths of scheming and corrupt autocratic British company officials.''

These two diabolical doctrines hatched by the foxy British Bobs were also among so many reasons that culminated in the form of a big rebellion called the Sepoy Mutiny (revolt) in 1857. The hospitable people of India were sick and tired of these nefarious and back-stabbing attitude of the company officials. Now, their emotional feelings, hatred and stoic sufferings were full to the brim. 


Ref:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Rebellion_of_1857
Wolpert, Stanley. A New History of India; 3rd ed., pp. 226-28. Oxford University Press, 1989.
Rajput Provinces of India - Udaipur (Princely State)