Thursday, 8 January 2015

Perfectly timed invasion by Nadir Shah (1739), fall of Mogul rule

Nadir Shah  invasion of
 The Noor-ol-Ain diamond Tiara( indian origin),part of the Iranian Crown.
India was  once a land of diamonds and precious stones, gold and silver. Particularly innumerable Hindu temples has a vast collection of gold jewels, precious stones, etc to be adorned by the deities during the festival times. Not only did the Hindu Maharajahs had a vast wealth of valuable jewelry, but also by the later Mogul rulers.

Babur (Persian;  14 February 1483 -26 December 1530), born Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muḥammad, was a conqueror from Central Asia. After a few early setbacks  he finally laid the early foundation for the  the Mughal dynasty in the Indian subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor. He was a direct descendant of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur (Tamurlane) from the Barlas clan, through his father, and also a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother.

Babar was the first of the Moguls to invade India in 1521, and seized power at Delhi by defeating the army of the Lodhi Sultan Ibrahim at Panipat in 1526.  In the midst of  economic and political crisis under the Moguls, who suffered from intellectual bankruptcy, and with the exception of Akbar they never kept the nation secular and united. Their policies offended the sentiments of the Hindus and Muslims were not happy either. The reign of Aurangzeb, the most dreaded Mogul ruler hastened the decline of Mogul power in India. The weak military and poor administration under the unworthy descendants of Babur exposed them to the menace of foreign invaders. The province became weak and there was hardly any collection of state revenues.By declaring war on the mighty Maratha rulers, Aurangzeb almost emptied the government treasury.  The soldiers had not been paid for several years, Situation in the subcontinent under the Mogul being dismal, it provided a golden opportunity  for the invader from the NW to to seize power.
The ruler of Iran, Nadir Shah, a shrewd and powerful warrior did not lose time to let the opportunity slip  past him . So, he exploited the weakness of last Moguls, at the right time  and plundered the city of Delhi in February,1739 and took away immense  amounts of wealth.

Nur-ul Ain  was one of the  valuable diamonds taken away by him. It is now with the Iranian crown jewels along with  another priceless treasure  the famous peacock throne made of gold,  numerous diamonds, and innumerable precious stones of various beautiful enchanting colors and sizes with gold, silver, diamonds, pearls and emeralds from the Mogul treasury are now on display in the Tehran Museum.

 After the assassination of Nadir Shah in 1747 the invasion was followed by a series of plundering raids by the Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah  Abdali, who invaded north India five times between 1748 and 1761. He took control of Punjab, Kashmir and finally defeated the  Marathas.

Nadir Shah Steppe History Forum - ProBoards

A graphic account of Nadir Shah's worst invasion’s impact upon Delhi:
...(those) ... who had been masters were now in dire straits; and those who had been revered couldn’t even (get water to) quench their thirst. The recluses were pulled out of their corners. The wealthy were turned into beggars. Those who once set the style in clothes now went naked; and those who owned property were now homeless ... The New City (Shahjahanabad) was turned into rubble. (Nadir Shah) then attacked the Old quarters of the city and destroyed a whole that existed there.

It was a great blow to the surviving Mogul rulers and Nadir Shah's daring invasion left them bleeding and prostrate, exposing their hollowness and helplessness. Nadir Shah's men were notorious criminals, rapists and cutthroat soldiers; they raped the women besides ravaging and destroying the kingdom. The Hindu temples were looted and damaged.