Saturday, 6 December 2014

Jagad Guru Badsha Ibrahim Adil Shah II of Bijapur, secular Muslim ruler


Secular ruler Sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah II,Bijapur,India. tendreams.org
 As a ruler of a big kingdom, the king or whoever be the head, bears a lot of responsibilities. He must be well-versed in administration, finance, military and above all the most important branch - management of people. Regardless of his personal religious faith, he must treat all his citizens on par with his own religion. In the days of Muslim rule in India, with some exception, most of the rulers it was not not the  case. They purposely neglected the welfare of the people of other faiths  and some treacherous Muslim rulers openly indulged in religious suppression of Hindus and others. The Bahmini dynasty of south India was an exception to this kind of unjust rule.


Jama Masjid, Bijapur. Karnataka. Flicker
The Bahmani dynasty, it is believed,  descended from Bahman, the famous king of Iran. Ssultanates of this dynasty certainly not only enriched of India’s regional cultures but also made valid contributions to the development of the regional languages. They recognized Marathi as a language of business and trade and encouraged Marathi literature, besides Iranian, Urdu and Kannada..
Their center of activities during their rule was Bijapur, a prominent city in Karnataka, South India. In 1482, the Bahmini empire was split into five kingdoms and Bijapur sultanate was one of them.
One of the well-known ruler Ibrahim Adil Shah’s successor Ali Adil Shah I, who built famous historical building such as Chand Bawdi - large well, Ali Rauza- his own tomb, etc.,  was not blessed with a son. So, he at last, adopted his nephew Ibrahim II as his legal heir. After Ali Shah I death, Chand Bibi, Ibrahim's mother became an acting regent of Ibrahim, the fifth king of the Bahmani dynasty.
When Ibrahim took the reigns of the kingdom, he learned the nuances of regal administration of a big kingdom as quickly as he could. Being smart, intellectual, tolerant and just, he gained the respect of  people of various sorts - Shia, Sunni Muslims, Hindus and others. No doubt the people under Adil Shah II (1556 - 12 September 1627)'s  rule lived in peace and harmony.
Ibrahim Adil Shah II (1591),Bijapur. India.quickwiki.com


Bijapur location map. Gurudev Ranade
Jama Masjid, Bijapur, Karnataka. Flicker.com
Unlike many Muslim rulers of India, he was particularly kind toward the Hindus, who constituted the largest community. During his efficient rule that spanned 46 years, he built Hindu temples - dedicated  Saraswati (goddess of learning) and Ganapathy (god of wisdom) on his palace precincts. He played Tampura - a musical instrument and composed songs on Hindu deities. He publicly declared that he was deeply interested in Vidya or learning, music, and in the teachings of great Sufi saint of Gulburga Hazrat Banda Nawaj. He said that he was proud of living in Vidhyapuri - the old name of Bijapur. He was a polyglot - speaking many languages including the regional language Kannada - now the official language of Karnataka state. As a great connoisseur and patron of music, his keen interest in music prompted him to give shape to his idea of a musical city. Hence he built a new township at Navraspur. For him, the holy Tampura personified learning, hence he earned the nick name ''Ebrahim the Tamburawala.'' Like his predecessors, he happily employed several Hindus in top posts thus conforming his strong faith in secularism. The Builder of the world famous Gol Gumbaz with whistling gallery pretty large dome, was a man of charitable disposition, character and wisdom.

The fifth king of the Adil Shahi dynasty is known in Indian history as Jagadguru Badshah.